Topic Review
Charging Electric Vehicles Today and in the Future
It is expected that more vehicles will be electrified in the coming years. This will require reliable access to charging infrastructure in society, and the charging will include data exchange between different actors. This suggests a variety of future charging strategies, charging patterns, system types, and charging infrastructures to match the specific vehicle- and user requirements. The electricity available for EV charging locally can be generated to the grid from fossil fuels, nuclear power, or renewable energy sources (RES), such as hydropower. 
  • 6
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Evaluating Geothermal Systems through Life Cycle Assessment
In these days of heightened environmental consciousness, many countries are shifting their focus towards renewable energy sources for both large-scale uses (such as power plants that generate electricity) and smaller-scale applications (e.g., building heating and cooling). Taking into account a holistic method, LCA on the one hand allows to display the whole life cycle of a system from the extraction of raw materials, its creation to the production phase and finally to its disposal. On the other hand, it reveals through multiple environmental impact categories, the hot spots that account for the different stages of the cycle defining the environmental identity of the system and consequently driving policy makers on taking final decisions. Geothermal energy is an extremely viable alternative that, combined with other renewable energy systems, may mitigate the negative effects of the existing energy mix worldwide.
  • 40
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Renewable Energy Resources in Nigeria
Renewable energy resource utilisation is becoming more prevalent in society and can be a sustainable method to meet rising energy demand and consumption. The International Renewable Energy Agency reports that presently, approximately 33% of total electricity output around the world is from renewable energy sources. In Nigeria, the World Bank reported this figure as 18.2% in 2015. It is important to understand how Nigeria can raise this average as the world moves towards less use of fossil fuels. 
  • 27
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Integrated On-Board Charger-Traction Systems
The Integrated On-board Charger (iOBC) is the innovative technique to design the on-board charging system in which the motor coil and traction inverter is used during charging as grid filter and active front-end power factor correction unit respectively. This technique helps to increase charging power density, reduce vehicle size and weight.
  • 28
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Radio-Absorbing Materials and Technologies for Their Production
Radio waves cover a fairly wide spectrum of the frequency range (the range of waves used is from ultra-long to millimeter; the range is from centimeters and meters to thousands of kilometers) and are harmonic signals modulated in amplitude and frequency. The main source of powerful electromagnetic radiation is an antenna that radiates a flow of electromagnetic energy in a directionally or non-directionally into the surrounding space.
  • 18
  • 17 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Management of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Purification
Municipal sewage sludge is the residual material produced as a waste of municipal wastewater purification. It is a sophisticated multi-component material, hard to handle. For many years, it has been landfilled, incinerated, and widely used in agriculture practice. When unproperly discharged, it is very polluting and unhealthy. The rapidly increasing global amount of municipal sewage sludge produced annually depends on urbanization, degree of development, and lifestyle. Some diffused traditional practices were banned or became economically unfeasible or unacceptable by the communities. In contrast, it has been established that MSS contains valuable resources, which can be utilized as energy and fertilizer. Ambitious and costly plans for remediation, the modernization of regulations, collecting and purification systems, and beneficial waste management using a modern approach. We also found that the activated sludge process is the leading technology for wastewater purification, and anaerobic digestion is the leading technology for downstream waste. However, biological technologies appear inadequate and hydrothermal carbonization, already applicable at full scale, is the best candidate for playing a significant role in managing municipal sewage sludge produced by big towns and small villages.
  • 7
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Laser Metal Deposition for Cladding
With the development of society and the economy, there is an increasing demand for surface treatment techniques that can efficiently utilize metal materials to obtain good performances in the fields of mechanical engineering and the aerospace industry. The laser metal deposition (LMD) technique for cladding has become a research focus because of its lower dilution rate, small heat-effect zone and good metallurgical bonding between the coating and substrate.
  • 10
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Polylactic Acid Biopolymer in Multi-Material Additive Manufacturing
3D printing is a revolutionary additive manufacturing method that enables rapid prototyping and design flexibility. A variety of thermoplastic polymers can be used in printing. As it is necessary to reduce the consumption of petrochemical resources, alternative solutions are being researched, and the interest in using bioplastics and biocomposites is constantly growing. Multi-material printing using polymers is the subject of research led by many scientists worldwide. The number of materials for printing is practically unlimited, especially considering the independent production of filaments or their modification, which is becoming easier and is more available for research institutions. One popular and economic printing technique using polymers is the fused deposition modeling (FDM)/Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) technology.
  • 21
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Quality Assessment of Laser Welding Dual Phase Steels
Dual phase steels (DP) are one of the most studied steels in the automotive industry, especially after the 1990s when it was decided to reduce the cars’ weight to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOC) and other emissions. The assessment regarding welding DP steel parts should be able to prevent defects from occurring, using finite element method (FEM) analysis to study the material behavior considering the parameterization used during the welding process. It is also necessary to control the possible occurrence of defects during the process, such as porosities, cracks, lack of penetration, etc., controlling the parameters of the welding fixture and ensuring that the operator follows procedures and standards. A batch sample should be subjected to some tests after production to check if there are any defects, such as dimensional errors or porosities in the bead.
  • 14
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Effect of Additives on Hydrate Growth
Gas hydrates are preferentially formed over hexagonal ice during water’s liquid-to-solid phase change in the presence of a gas molecule dissolved in the water. 
  • 15
  • 16 Aug 2022
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