Topic Review
‘Helete Güneşi’, a New Walnut Cultivar
‘Helete Güneşi’ was selected among different genotypes obtained from crossing ‘Maraş 18’ × ‘Chandler’ in Turkey. The present study compares phenological and pomological traits of ‘Helete Güneşi’ with those of its parents so as to scale their performances. ‘Helete Güneşi’ staged leaf out on 22 April, whereas its parents, ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’, did on 20 and 12 April, respectively. The harvest date of ‘Helete Güneşi’ was as early as 17 September, whereas ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’ began to be harvested on 5 October and 15 September, respectively. Defoliation in ‘Helete Güneşi’ occurred about 1 month earlier than ‘Chandler’. The nut weight and kernel percentage of ‘Helete Güneşi’ were 13.41 g and 53.39%, respectively, whereas in ‘Chandler’ the values were 12.73 g and 48.23%, respectively, but were 14.62 g and 53.76% in ‘Maraş 18’. ‘Helete Güneşi’ had a higher yield value compared to its parents. The results demonstrated that ‘Helete Güneşi’ has superior traits in being selected for late leafing date, early harvest date, high yield, and good nut quality. Therefore, it can be considered as a valuable genetic resource in future breeding programs around the world.
  • 257
  • 02 Dec 2021
Topic Review
“Singing” Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors and Mitigation Methods
Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors (MLCC) have a major role in modern electronic devices due to their small price and size, large range of capacitance, small ESL and ESR, and good frequency response. Unfortunately, the main dielectric material used for MLCCs, Barium Titanate, makes the capacitors vibrate due to the piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects. This vibration is transferred to the PCB, making it resonate in the audible range of 20 Hz–20 kHz, and in this way the singing capacitors phenomenon occurs. This phenomenon is usually measured with a microphone, to measure the sound pressure level, or with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV), to measure the vibration. Besides this, other methods are mentioned in the literature, for example, the optical fiber and the active excitation method. There are several solutions to attenuate or even eliminate the acoustic noise caused by MLCC. Specially designed capacitors for low acoustic levels and different layout geometries are only two options found in the literature. To prevent the singing capacitor phenomenon, different simulations can be performed, the harmonic analysis being the most popular technique. 
  • 159
  • 06 Jun 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting of Musculoskeletal Tissue
The musculoskeletal system is a vital body system that protects internal organs, supports locomotion, and maintains homeostatic function. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Although implant surgeries using autografts, allografts, and xenografts have been conducted, several adverse effects, including donor site morbidity and immunoreaction, exist. To overcome these limitations, various biomedical engineering approaches have been proposed based on an understanding of the complexity of human musculoskeletal tissue. In this review, the leading edge of musculoskeletal tissue engineering using 3D bioprinting technology and musculoskeletal tissue-derived decellularized extracellular matrix bioink is described. In particular, studies on in vivo regeneration and in vitro modeling of musculoskeletal tissue have been focused on. Lastly, the current breakthroughs, limitations, and future perspectives are described.
  • 402
  • 03 Mar 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting Skin and Melanoma Models
Melanoma is a potentially fatal cancer with rising incidence, associated with enhanced sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation. Its incidence is highest in people of European descent and the ageing population. Although survival has improved due to advances in targeted and immunotherapies, new understanding of melanoma biology and disease progression is vital to improving clinical outcomes. Efforts to develop three-dimensional human skin equivalent models using biofabrication techniques, such as bioprinting, promise to deliver a better understanding of the complexity of melanoma and associated risk factors. These 3D skin models can be used as a platform for patient specific models and testing therapeutics.
  • 49
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting Technology
3D bioprinting, an additive manufacturing process, is a pioneering technology that prints 3D structures with biocompatible materials including living cells (i.e., bioinks).
  • 291
  • 22 Mar 2022
Topic Review
3D Braiding Technology
3D braiding technologies enable the production of structures with complex geometry, which are often used for lightweight solutions, for example in automotive engineering. In addition, medical technology offers wide-ranging applications for 3D braiding technology. 3D braided structures are defined as those with yarns that intersect in all three spatial directions. 3D braiding processes allow the fiber orientation to be easily influenced, thus ensuring high strength and stiffness with reduced mass.
  • 551
  • 25 Aug 2021
Topic Review
3D Cell Culture Technology
Unlike the 2D cultures, which grow by attaching to the bottom as a monolayer, 3D cell culture refers to cells aggregated and expressed as a single tissue or form. Moreover, the 3D-cultured cells are attached to an artificially created ECM environment to interact with or grow with the surrounding environment. Therefore, unlike 2D cell cultures, cell growth in a 3D environment allows cells to grow in multiple directions rather than in a single direction in vitro, which is similar to in vivo conditions. Upon comparison, the 3D cell culture exhibits several advantages: (1) A similar biomimetic model, which is more physiologically relevant. (2) A 3D culture exhibits a high level of structural complexity and maintains homeostasis for longer. (3) 3D models can indicate how different types of cells interact. (4) 3D cultures can reduce the use of animal models. (5) They are a good simulator for the treatment of disease groups including cancer tumors.
  • 250
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
3D Geological Property Modeling Methods
Three-dimensional (3D) geological property modeling is used to quantitatively characterize various geological attributes in 3D space based on geostatistics with the help of computer visualization technology, and the results are often stored in grid data. The 3D geological property modeling includes two main components, grid model generation and property interpolation.
  • 112
  • 15 Jun 2022
Topic Review
3D Placement of a New Tethered UAV
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become an essential component in many wireless communication systems because of their rapid deployment, mobility, and flexibility.
  • 219
  • 07 Feb 2022
Topic Review
3D Printed and Conventional Membranes
Additive manufacturing, also called 3D printing (3DP), is considered to be a possible approach to produce custom membranes with more manufacturing control than any other method of membrane manufacturing available today. Polymer membranes are central to the proper operation of several processes used in a wide range of applications. The production of these membranes relies on processes such as phase inversion, stretching, track etching, sintering, or electrospinning. Results show that very few membrane materials are used as 3D-printed membranes. Such membranes showed acceptable performance, better structures, and less environmental impact compared with those of conventional membranes.
  • 217
  • 18 Mar 2022
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