Topic Review
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) is widely used in many fields of energy and power engineering, such as nuclear reactors, solar thermal power generation systems, and refrigeration systems. In practical applications, SCO2 undergoes a cooling process significantly when it is cooled near the pseudo–critical point.
  • 19
  • 08 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Optimization Approaches for Microgrid Energy Management
The microgrids (MG) is a single controllable local power network with distributed energy sources (solar Photovoltaics (PV), wind energy, diesel generator, fuel cell, wave energy, etc.), ESS, controllable distributed loads (households, commercial, industrial, etc.), and advanced energy management systems (EMSs). It can be operated alone or in connection with the utility grid. 
  • 8
  • 07 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Key Technologies for Multi-Parallel Inverter Microgrid Systems
As an important form of distributed renewable energy utilization and consumption, the multi-parallel inverter microgrid system works in both an isolated and grid-connected operation mode. Secondary-frequency and voltage-regulation control are very important in solving problems that appears in these systems, such as the distributed secondary-frequency regulation real-time scheme, voltage and reactive power balancing, and the secondary-frequency regulation control under the disturbances and unbalanced conditions of a microgrid system. 
  • 11
  • 07 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Actuators for Implantable Devices
The choice of actuators dictates how an implantable biomedical device moves. Specifically, the concept of implantable robots consists of the three pillars: actuators, sensors, and powering. Robotic devices that require active motion are driven by a biocompatible actuator. Depending on the actuating mechanism, different types of actuators vary remarkably in strain/stress output, frequency, power consumption, and durability. Most reviews to date focus on specific type of actuating mechanism (electric, photonic, electrothermal, etc.) for biomedical applications. With a rapidly expanding library of novel actuators, however, the granular boundaries between subcategories turns the selection of actuators a laborious task, which can be particularly time-consuming to those unfamiliar with actuation. 
  • 10
  • 07 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Pulsed Infrared Thermography Application Documentary Materials
Pulsed Infrared Thermography (PT) is nowadays established as an effective tool thanks to its remote character allowing the in situ non-destructive investigation of the artworks by means of relatively simple experimental procedures.
  • 22
  • 07 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Bibliography of Early U.S. Naval History
Historical accounts for early U.S. naval history now occur across the spectrum of two and more centuries. This Bibliography lends itself primarily to reliable sources covering early U.S. naval history beginning around the American Revolution period on through the 18th and 19th centuries and includes sources which cover notable naval commanders, Presidents, important ships, major naval engagements and corresponding wars. The bibliography also includes sources that are not committed to the subject of U.S. naval history per se but whose content covers this subject extensively. Among the contemporary and earlier historical accounts are primary sources, historical accounts, often derived from letters, dispatches, government and military records, captain's logs and diaries, etc., written by authors who were involved in or closely associated to the historical episode in question. Primary source material is often collected, compiled and published by other editors also, sometimes many years after the historical subject has passed. Many of the authors are notable and even famous in their own right and are linked to their corresponding biographies.
  • 8
  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Fuel Dispenser
A fuel dispenser is a machine at a filling station that is used to pump gasoline, petrol, diesel, CNG, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, LH2, ethanol fuel, biofuels like biodiesel, kerosene, or other types of fuel into vehicles. Fuel dispensers are also known as bowsers (in Australia ), petrol pumps (in Commonwealth countries), or gas pumps (in North America).
  • 7
  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Guitar Technician
A guitar technician (or 'guitar tech') is a member of a music ensemble's road crew who maintains and sets up the musical equipment for one or more guitarists. Depending on the type and size of band, the guitar tech may be responsible for stringing, tuning, and adjusting electric guitars and acoustic guitars, and maintaining and setting up guitar amplifiers and other related electronic equipment such as effect pedals. Once the guitar equipment has been set up onstage, the guitar tech does a soundcheck to ensure that the equipment is working well. If there are any problems, the guitar tech replaces or repairs the faulty components or equipment. Since guitar techs need to soundcheck the instruments and amplifiers, they must have basic guitar-playing skills, a musical "ear" for tuning, and a familiarity with the way guitars, amplifiers, and effect pedals are supposed to sound in the style of music of their band. Guitar techs learn their craft either "on the job", by working in a range of music, sound engineering, and instrument repair jobs; by completing a guitar repair program at a college or lutherie school; or from a combination of these two routes. The salaries and conditions of work for guitar techs vary widely, depending on whether a guitar tech is working for a minor or regional touring bar band or a major international touring act.
  • 8
  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Saturn V Instrument Unit
The Saturn V Instrument Unit is a ring-shaped structure fitted to the top of the Saturn V rocket's third stage (S-IVB) and the Saturn IB's second stage (also an S-IVB). It was immediately below the SLA (Spacecraft/Lunar Module Adapter) panels that contained the Lunar Module. The Instrument Unit contains the guidance system for the Saturn V rocket. Some of the electronics contained within the Instrument Unit are a digital computer, analog flight control computer, emergency detection system, inertial guidance platform, control accelerometers and control rate gyros. The instrument unit (IU) for Saturn V was designed by NASA at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and was developed from the Saturn I IU. NASA's contractor to construct the Saturn V Instrument Unit was International Business Machines (IBM). One of the unused Instrument Units is currently on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. The plaque for the Unit has the following inscription: The Saturn V rocket, which sent astronauts to the Moon, used inertial guidance, a self-contained system that guided the rocket's trajectory. The rocket booster had a guidance system separate from those on the command and lunar modules. It was contained in an instrument unit like this one, a ring located between the rocket's third stage and the command and lunar modules. The ring contained the basic guidance system components—a stable platform, accelerometers, a digital computer, and control electronics—as well as radar, telemetry, and other units. The instrument unit's stable platform was based on an experimental unit for the German V-2 rocket of World War II. The Bendix Corporation produced the platform, while IBM designed and built the unit's digital computer.
  • 25
  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
U-Boat Campaign (World War I)
The U-boat Campaign from 1914 to 1918 was the World War I naval campaign fought by German U-boats against the trade routes of the Allies. It took place largely in the seas around the British Isles and in the Mediterranean. The German Empire relied on imports for food and domestic food production (especially fertilizer) and the United Kingdom relied heavily on imports to feed its population, and both required raw materials to supply their war industry; the powers aimed, therefore, to blockade one another. The British had the Royal Navy which was superior in numbers and could operate on most of the world's oceans because of the British Empire, whereas the Imperial German Navy surface fleet was mainly restricted to the German Bight, and used commerce raiders and unrestricted submarine warfare to operate elsewhere. In the course of events in the Atlantic alone, German U-boats sank almost 5,000 ships with nearly 13 million gross register tonnage, losing 178 boats and about 5,000 men in combat. Other naval theatres saw U-boats operating in both the Far East and South East Asia, the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean and North Seas.
  • 20
  • 06 Dec 2022
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