Topic Review
3D Bioprinting of Musculoskeletal Tissue
The musculoskeletal system is a vital body system that protects internal organs, supports locomotion, and maintains homeostatic function. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide. Although implant surgeries using autografts, allografts, and xenografts have been conducted, several adverse effects, including donor site morbidity and immunoreaction, exist. To overcome these limitations, various biomedical engineering approaches have been proposed based on an understanding of the complexity of human musculoskeletal tissue. In this review, the leading edge of musculoskeletal tissue engineering using 3D bioprinting technology and musculoskeletal tissue-derived decellularized extracellular matrix bioink is described. In particular, studies on in vivo regeneration and in vitro modeling of musculoskeletal tissue have been focused on. Lastly, the current breakthroughs, limitations, and future perspectives are described.
  • 609
  • 03 Mar 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting Skin
3D bioprinting is considered to have a significant impact in the field of tissue engineering, as tissue-scaled large analogs can be fabricated with submicron fidelity. 3D bioprinted skin equivalents are highlighted as the new gold standard for alternative models to animal testing, as well as full-thickness wound healing. 
  • 25
  • 16 Jan 2023
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting Skin and Melanoma Models
Melanoma is a potentially fatal cancer with rising incidence, associated with enhanced sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation. Its incidence is highest in people of European descent and the ageing population. Although survival has improved due to advances in targeted and immunotherapies, new understanding of melanoma biology and disease progression is vital to improving clinical outcomes. Efforts to develop three-dimensional human skin equivalent models using biofabrication techniques, such as bioprinting, promise to deliver a better understanding of the complexity of melanoma and associated risk factors. These 3D skin models can be used as a platform for patient specific models and testing therapeutics.
  • 129
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting Techniques
Additive manufacturing, more often referred to as “3D printing,” is the method of fabricating three-dimensional objects by adding successive layers of materials at a regulated rate and thickness. These materials could be made of concrete, metals, ceramics, polymers, resins, biomaterials, or other substances. The dearth of variety in 3D-printable materials continues even though printing time, processing speed, and printing resolution have all increased. The compatibility and flowability of printing ink with the current printing procedures are crucial for developing fields such as the 3D printing of biomaterials, tissues, and high-viability cells.
  • 73
  • 12 Dec 2022
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting Technology
3D bioprinting, an additive manufacturing process, is a pioneering technology that prints 3D structures with biocompatible materials including living cells (i.e., bioinks).
  • 531
  • 22 Mar 2022
Topic Review
3D Braiding Technology
3D braiding technologies enable the production of structures with complex geometry, which are often used for lightweight solutions, for example in automotive engineering. In addition, medical technology offers wide-ranging applications for 3D braiding technology. 3D braided structures are defined as those with yarns that intersect in all three spatial directions. 3D braiding processes allow the fiber orientation to be easily influenced, thus ensuring high strength and stiffness with reduced mass.
  • 951
  • 25 Aug 2021
Topic Review
3D Cell Culture
A 3D cell culture is an artificially created environment in which biological cells are permitted to grow or interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions. Unlike 2D environments (e.g. a Petri dish), a 3D cell culture allows cells in vitro to grow in all directions, similar to how they would in vivo. These three-dimensional cultures are usually grown in bioreactors, small capsules in which the cells can grow into spheroids, or 3D cell colonies. Approximately 300 spheroids are usually cultured per bioreactor.
  • 63
  • 30 Nov 2022
Topic Review
3D Cell Culture Technology
Unlike the 2D cultures, which grow by attaching to the bottom as a monolayer, 3D cell culture refers to cells aggregated and expressed as a single tissue or form. Moreover, the 3D-cultured cells are attached to an artificially created ECM environment to interact with or grow with the surrounding environment. Therefore, unlike 2D cell cultures, cell growth in a 3D environment allows cells to grow in multiple directions rather than in a single direction in vitro, which is similar to in vivo conditions. Upon comparison, the 3D cell culture exhibits several advantages: (1) A similar biomimetic model, which is more physiologically relevant. (2) A 3D culture exhibits a high level of structural complexity and maintains homeostasis for longer. (3) 3D models can indicate how different types of cells interact. (4) 3D cultures can reduce the use of animal models. (5) They are a good simulator for the treatment of disease groups including cancer tumors.
  • 413
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
3D Geological Property Modeling Methods
Three-dimensional (3D) geological property modeling is used to quantitatively characterize various geological attributes in 3D space based on geostatistics with the help of computer visualization technology, and the results are often stored in grid data. The 3D geological property modeling includes two main components, grid model generation and property interpolation.
  • 365
  • 15 Jun 2022
Topic Review
3D Placement of a New Tethered UAV
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become an essential component in many wireless communication systems because of their rapid deployment, mobility, and flexibility.
  • 338
  • 07 Feb 2022
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