Topic Review
Methods of Residual Stress Measurement
This entry introduces several commonly used residual stress measurement methods.
  • 5164
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel
Hydrogen is a very important fuel of our secure and clean energy future. Hydrogen will be the fuel of the future and gradually it will replace all current fossil fuels. Hydrogen can be used as a fuel for vehicles, to heat homes and offices, to produce electricity, and to fuel ships and aircraft. The present work provides an overview of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, which can be used in internal combustion engines and in fuel cells.
  • 5150
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Energy Management Strategy
A Comprehensive Review on Classification, Energy Management Strategy, and Control Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  • 4973
  • 22 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Abrasive Water-Jet Machining
Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) is a very useful non-conventional machining for the cutting of dissimilar materials at once. It is a flexible process that generates low thermal damage to the machined surface as there is no continuous tool-material con- tact along the machining process. Compared to conventional processes such as milling, abrasive particles are used in water jet machining. These particles have cutting edges that allow the machining of the material by overlapping of small impacts that deform the material. At each instant, a quantity of abrasive particles travels in the water jet in order to perform the cut.
  • 4900
  • 24 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Industry 4.0 and Sustainability
Sustainability and Industry 4.0 (I4.0) are trending concepts used in the literature on industrial processes. Industry 4.0 has been mainly addressed by the current literature from a technological perspective, overlooking sustainability challenges regarding this recent paradigm. The objective of this encyclopedia entry is to evaluate the state of the art of relations between sustainability and I4.0. The goal will be met by (1) mapping and summarizing existing research efforts, (2) identifying research agendas, (3) examining gaps and opportunities for further research. Web of Science, Scopus, and a set of specific keywords were used to select peer-reviewed papers presenting evidence on the relationship between sustainability and I4.0. To achieve this goal, it was decided to use a dynamic methodology called “systematic literature network analysis”. This methodology combines a systematic literature review approach with the analysis of bibliographic networks. Selected papers were used to build a reference framework formed by I4.0 technologies and sustainability issues. The encyclopedia entry contributes to the Sustainable Industry 4.0 reference framework with application procedures. It aims to show how I4.0 can support ideas of sustainability. The results showed that apart from a huge contribution to both concepts, many papers do not provide an insight into realization of initiatives to introduce Sustainable Industry 4.0.
  • 4667
  • 06 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Electric Vehicles Adoption Scenario in Malaysia
In the roadmaps of the automotive industry, the electric vehicle (EV) is regarded as a crucial technology for the future of automotive power systems. The EV has become a top priority of major global car manufacturers and is expected to disrupt the road transportation sector. In Malaysia and Indonesia, EVs just started as an important force. However, in Malaysia, the lack of EV infrastructure, along with its strong dependency on fossil fuels, poses an enormous challenge. 
  • 4537
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Power Electronic Switches
As the need for green and effective utilization of energy continues to grow, the advancements in the energy and power electronics industry are constantly driven by this need, as both industries are intertwined for obvious reasons. The developments in the power electronics industry has over the years hinged on the progress of the semiconductor device industry. The semiconductor device industry could be said to be on the edge of a turn into a new era, a paradigm shift from the conventional silicon devices to the wide band gap semiconductor technologies. While a lot of work is being done in research and manufacturing sectors, it is important to look back at the past, evaluate the current progress and look at the prospects of the future of this industry. This paper is unique at this time because it seeks to give a good summary of the past, the state-of-the-art, and highlight the opportunities for future improvements. A more or less ‘forgotten’ power electronic switch, the four-quadrant switch, is highlighted as an opportunity waiting to be exploited as this switch presents a potential for achieving an ideal switch.
  • 4526
  • 29 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Load Frequency Control System
Power systems are complex systems that have great importance to socio-economic development due to the fact that the entire world relies on the electric network power supply for day-to-day life. Therefore, for the stable operation of power systems, several protection and control techniques are necessary. Among various power system controls, the load frequency control (LFC) is the most time-consuming control mechanism of power systems due to the involvement of mechanical parts. As the control algorithms of frequency stabilization deliver control signals in the timescale of seconds, LFC systems cannot handle complicated data validation algorithms, making them more vulnerable to disturbances and cyber-attacks. Hence advanced research is highly encouraged in the field of development of attack resilient frequency stabilization techniques and in the area of cyber-security of LFC systems.
  • 4507
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric methodology for measuring the efficiency of Decision Making Units (DMUs) using multiple inputs to outputs configurations. This is the most commonly used tool for frontier estimations in assessments of productivity and efficiency applied to all fields of economic activities.
  • 4340
  • 28 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Maharashtra Energy System
The demand for energy across the world has been increasing in recent years due to the rapid growth of the population, including in India. This work examined the progress of non-conventional energy in Maharashtra state in detail.
  • 3982
  • 28 Oct 2020
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