Topic Review
Nutritional Composition in Tomatoes
Tomatoes are consumed worldwide as fresh vegetables because of their high contents of essential nutrients and antioxidant-rich phytochemicals. Tomatoes contain minerals, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids (leucine, threonine, valine, histidine, lysine, arginine), monounsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotenoids) and phytoster-ols (β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol). Lycopene is the main dietary carotenoid in tomato and tomato-based food products and lycopene consumption by humans has been reported to protect against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive function and osteoporosis. Among the phenolic compounds present in tomato, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, caffeic acid and lutein are the most common. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the human body against various oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary tomatoes in-crease the body’s level of antioxidants, trapping reactive oxygen species and reducing oxidative damage to important biomolecules such as membrane lipids, enzymatic proteins and DNA, thereby ameliorating oxidative stress.
  • 3607
  • 04 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Adolescents Malnutrition
Adolescents are young individuals that are between the ages of 10 and 19 years old.  Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in an individual intake of energy and/or nutrients 
  • 2881
  • 16 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin B6 and Diabetes
Vitamin B6 is an essential nutrient for the human health. It is involved in more that 150 metabolic reactions which regulate the metabolism of glucose, lipids, amino acids, DNA, and neurotransmitters. In addition, vitamin B6 is an antioxidant molecule able to  counteracting the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Epidemiological and experimental studies indicated the reduced levels of vitamin B6 can cause diabetes. In contrast other studies show that diabetes decreases vitamin B6 levels. Thus these findings lead to envisage the existence of a vicious circle at the basis of the relationship between vitamin B6 and diabetes. This entry reports the main evidence concerning the role of vitamin B6 in diabetes and examine the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms.  
  • 2047
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Plant-Dominant Low-Protein Diet
Plant-dominant low-protein diet (LPD), also abbreviated as "PLADO" is a patient-centered LPD of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day composed of >50% plant-based sources, administered by dietitians trained in providing nutrition care to patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). PLADO's composition and meal plans can be designed and adjusted based on individualized needs and according to the principles of precision nutrition. The goal of PLADO is to slow kidney disease progression, to avoid or delay dialysis therapy initiation, and to ensure cardiovascular health and longevity.  The ideal type of PLADO is a heart-healthy, safe, flexible, and feasible diet that could be the centerpiece of the conservative and preservative management of CKD.
  • 1849
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Short-Chain Fatty Acids
The relationship between diet and the diversity and function of the intestinal microbiome and its importance for human health is currently the subject of many studies. The type and proportion of microorganisms found in the intestines can determine the energy balance of the host. Intestinal microorganisms perform many important functions, one of which is participation in metabolic processes, e.g., in the production of short-chain fatty acids—SCFAs (also called volatile fatty acids). These acids represent the main carbon flow from the diet to the host microbiome. Maintaining intestinal balance is necessary to maintain the host’s normal health and prevent many diseases. The results of many studies confirm the beneficial effect of probiotic microorganisms on the balance of the intestinal microbiome and produced metabolites, including SCFAs. The aim of this review is to summarize what is known on the effects of probiotics on the production of short-chain fatty acids by gut microbes. In addition, the mechanism of formation and properties of these metabolites is discussed and verified test results confirming the effectiveness of probiotics in human nutrition by modulating SCFAs production by intestinal microbiome is presented.
  • 1615
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Vitamin D in Dairy Products
The term Vitamin D was created in 1922, describing a vitamin able to promote calcium deposition. Vitamin D in nature is available as ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3).
  • 1310
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Gymnema inodorum
Gymnema inodorum (GI) is an indigenous medicinal plant and functional food in Thailand that has recently helped to reduce plasma glucose levels in healthy humans. It is renowned for the medicinal properties of gymnemic acid and its ability to suppress glucose absorption. However, the effects of gymnemic acids on adipogenesis that contribute to the accumulation of adipose tissues associated with obesity remain unknown. The present study aimed to determine the effects of gymnemic acids derived from GI tea on adipogenesis. We purified and identified GiA-7 and stephanosides C and B from GI tea that inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. These compounds also suppressed the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ)-dependent genes, indicating that they inhibit lipid accumulation and the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Only GiA-7 induced the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and pparγ coactivator 1 alpha (Pgc1α), suggesting that GiA-7 induces mitochondrial activity and beige-like adipocytes. This is the first finding of stephanosides C and B in Gymnema inodorum. Our results suggested that GiA-7 and stephanosides C and B from GI tea could help to prevent obesity.
  • 1236
  • 21 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Taro Corms
Taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] is an ancient tuberous crop that is cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates as staple food source. The edible part of taro widely used for human consumption is known as corm. Taro corms contain valuable bioactive molecules effective against cancer and cancer-related risk factors, such as carcinogens and biological agents, several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative stress and inflammation, while controlling metabolic dysfunctions and boosting the immunological response. Such broad effects are achieved by the taro health-influencing compounds displaying antitumoral, antimutagenic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-hyperglycemic, and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Although these health-promoting effects have been recognized since ancient times, as well as other valuable features of taro for food profit, such as hypo-allergenicity, gluten-free, and carbohydrates with medium-glycemic index, taro crop remains underexploited.
  • 1185
  • 29 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Diet and Ganglioside Expression
Gangliosides are series of glycosphingolipids containing sialic acids in the oligosaccharide portion in mammalian cells. Gangliosides are a component of cellular membranes and play roles in modulating membrane function and the activity of membrane proteins. Abnormal expression and metabolism of gangliosides lead to the onset of several conditions in humans, such as neurologic diseases, diabetes, and cancer. A number of studies have been carried out to date to investigate the role of gangliosides in these diseases, and the effect of diet on tissue expression of gangliosides has recently become a topic of interest in this field. As gangliosides are degraded in the intestinal tract, ingested food-derived gangliosides are not directly absorbed into tissues in vivo, but the degradation products can be absorbed and affect ganglioside expression in the tissues. Recent studies have also shown that the expression of gangliosides in tissue cells can be indirectly induced by controlling the expression of ganglioside metabolism-related genes via the diet. These results indicate that dietary control can regulate the expression levels of gangliosides in tissues, which is expected to play a role in preventing and treating ganglioside-related diseases.
  • 1070
  • 13 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Dirk W. Lachenmeier
Dr. Dirk W. Lachenmeier is state-certified food chemist, toxicologist, director of the department of plant-based foods and co-head of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratory at Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Agency, Karlsruhe, Germany.
  • 991
  • 10 Nov 2020
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