Topic Review
Translational Application of Fluorescent Molecular Probes
Ischemia and reperfusion injury comprise complex mechanisms involving disarrangement of the splanchnic microcirculatory flow and impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain due to initial hypoxemia and subsequent oxidative stress during the reperfusion phase. 
  • 137
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. It is principally associated with liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. The major risk factors for the development of HCC include viral infections (HBV, HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD,) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment choice is dictated by multiple variables such as tumor burden, liver function, and patient’s health status. Surgical resection, transplantation, ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy are potentially useful treatment strategies. TACE is considered the first-line treatment for patients with intermediate stage HCC. 
  • 310
  • 24 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Training Simulators for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is the gold standard in the detection and treatment of early and advanced GI cancers. However, conventional endoscopic techniques are technically demanding and require visual-spatial skills and significant hands-on experience. GI endoscopy simulators represent a valid solution to allow doctors to practice in a pre-clinical scenario.
  • 383
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
TNF’s Pathway in CD
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic disorder characterized by full thickness patchy inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and involves defective innate immune responses, microbiome alterations, and dysregulated activation of the acquired component of mucosal immunity. One of the molecular mediators that is involved at different levels in the initiation and progression of intestinal inflammation characteristic of CD is tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
  • 198
  • 15 Oct 2021
Topic Review Video
Tissue Engineering in Liver Regenerative Medicine
Organ and tissue shortage are known as a crucially important public health problem as unfortunately a small percentage of patients receive transplants. Liver tissue engineering (TE) enables us to reproduce and restore liver functions, fully or partially, which could be used in the treatment of acute or chronic liver disorders and/or generate an appropriate functional organ which can be transplanted or employed as an extracorporeal device.
  • 157
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
Tissue Biopsy-Based MSI Testing
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly-diagnosed cancer in the world and ranked second for cancer-related mortality in humans. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is an indicator for Lynch syndrome (LS), an inherited cancer predisposition, and a prognostic marker which predicts the response to immunotherapy. A recent trend in immunotherapy has transformed cancer treatment to provide medical alternatives that have not existed before. It is believed that MSI-high (MSI-H) CRC patients would benefit from immunotherapy due to their increased immune infiltration and higher neo-antigenic loads. MSI testing such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR MSI assay has historically been a tissue-based procedure that involves the testing of adequate tissue with a high concentration of cancer cells, in addition to the requirement for paired normal tissues. The invasive nature and specific prerequisite of such tests might hinder its application when surgery is not an option or when the tissues are insufficient. The application of next-generation sequencing, which is highly sensitive, in combination with liquid biopsy, therefore, presents an interesting possibility worth exploring. This review aimed to discuss the current body of evidence supporting the potential of liquid biopsy as a tool for MSI testing in CRC.
  • 277
  • 16 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Therapeutic Targeting of Intestinal Fibrosis in Crohn’s Disease
Intestinal fibrosis is one of the most threatening complications of Crohn’s disease. Endoscopic and surgical approaches are currently the only options available and there is an urgent need for targeted anti-fibrotic therapy. Several molecules investigated in preclinical studies, which are awaiting clinical trials in humans, have proven effective in CD stricturing phenotype and may be available in the near future as additional weapons in preventing or reversing intestinal fibrosis. 
  • 170
  • 24 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Therapeutic Options of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infections
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are the human pathogenic subset of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli (STEC). EHEC are responsible for severe colon infections associated with life-threatening extraintestinal complications such as the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and neurological disturbances. Endothelial cells in various human organs are renowned targets of Stx, whereas the role of epithelial cells of colon and kidneys in the infection process has been and is still a matter of debate.
  • 144
  • 15 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Therapeutic Options against Chronic HBV
Currently, Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) is controlled but not cured by approved antivirals. For instance, transcriptionally active HBV DNA in the nucleus is not directly targeted. Except for interferon-α (IFN-α) and pegylated IFN-α, all other licensed drugs are nucleoside (Lamivudine, Clevudine, Entecavir, Telbivudine) and nucleotide analogues (Adefovir dipivoxil, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir alafenamide). All these drugs are potent at reducing viral loads and normalizing alanine transaminase levels in CHB patients. However, long-term treatment with many of these drugs leads to the development of multiple drug resistance mutations. In addition, while a limited reduction in cccDNA is achieved, long-term nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment does not reduce hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels.
  • 131
  • 14 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Theragnostic Strategies in Colorectal Cancer
Liquid biopsy has emerged as a minimally invasive tool that is capable of detecting genomic alterations from primary or metastatic tumors, allowing the prognostic stratification of patients, the detection of the minimal residual disease after surgical or systemic treatments, the monitoring of therapeutic response, and the development of resistance, establishing an opportunity for early intervention before imaging detection or worsening of clinical symptoms. On the other hand, preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrated the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in promoting inflammatory responses and cancer initiation. Altered gut microbiota is associated with resistance to chemo drugs and immune checkpoint inhibitors, whereas the use of microbe-targeted therapies including antibiotics, pre-probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation can restore response to anticancer drugs, promote immune response, and therefore support current treatment strategies in colorectal cancer (CRC).
  • 134
  • 10 Mar 2021
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