Topic Review
Virally Infected Donor Grafts
The ideal management for end stage liver disease, acute liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), within specific criteria, is liver transplantation (LT). Due to continuous increase in LT cases, there has been consideration to increase utilization of organs from donor livers which were previously discarded, including virally infected donor livers. 
  • 359
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Viral Liver Disease and Intestinal Gut–Liver Axis
The intestinal microbiota is closely related to liver diseases via the intestinal barrier and bile secretion to the gut. Impairment of the barrier can translocate microbes or their components to the liver where they can contribute to liver damage and fibrosis.
  • 157
  • 26 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Use of Herbal Dietary Supplements in the USA
Herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use has grown exponentially in the United States. Unfortunately, the incidence of HDS-related liver injury has proportionally increased. Despite the potential for certain HDSs to cause clinically significant liver injury, they are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efforts have been made to regulate HDSs but are far removed from the scrutiny of prescription medications. Scant literature exists on HDSs and their risks of causing liver injury.
  • 412
  • 19 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Biliary Atresia
Biliary atresia is an aggressive liver disease of infancy and can cause death without timely surgical intervention. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is critical to the recovery of bile drainage and long-term transplant-free survival. Ultrasound is recommended as the initial imaging strategy for the diagnosis of biliary atresia. Numerous ultrasound features have been proved helpful for the diagnosis of biliary atresia. In recent years, with the help of new technologies such as elastography ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and artificial intelligence, the diagnostic performance of ultrasound has been significantly improved.
  • 602
  • 26 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in BCLC-B Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents an entity of poor prognosis, especially in cases of delayed diagnosis. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have multiple anti-tumor effects and are widely used in several types of cancers. They down-regulate different molecular pathways that take part in carcinogenesis. The primary targets are the tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), key proteins that regulate cancer growth and metastasis. Specifically, TKIs block the phosphorylation of tyrosine kinases and the subsequent signaling pathways, slowing down cancer growth. Some of the inhibited networks are the rat sarcoma (RAS)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Pi3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), phospholipase C (PLC)/Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-protein kinase C (CaMK-PKC), Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription protein family (STAT), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, Met), and RAF kinases. Due to their multiple actions, TKIs were the standard treatment of care in advanced HCC over the last 15 years, but after the induction of IO, they now comprise the second-line option.
  • 115
  • 27 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Tumor Stroma Ratio in Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death, and its incidence is rising in the younger patient population.  In the past decade, research has unveiled several processes (underlying tumorigenesis, many of which involve interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding tissue or tumor microenvironment (TME). Interactions between components of the TME are mediated at a sub-microscopic level. 
  • 361
  • 19 May 2022
Topic Review
Tumor Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
The interaction of the cellular environment surrounding the tumor plays a relevant role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis. The tumor microenvironment is directly implicated in the modulation of liver fibrosis, the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, and metastasis. Besides liver cancer cells, several cell types participate in the tumor progression in the liver. 
  • 576
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Treatments for Acute Intermittent Porphyria
Rare diseases, especially monogenic diseases, which usually affect a single target protein, have attracted growing interest in drug research by encouraging pharmaceutical companies to design and develop therapeutic products to be tested in the clinical arena. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of these rare diseases. AIP is characterized by haploinsufficiency in the third enzyme of the heme biosynthesis pathway. Identification of the liver as the target organ and a detailed molecular characterization have enabled the development and approval of several therapies to manage this disease.
  • 463
  • 22 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Treatment Strategy for Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been standard treatment for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, all intermediate-stage HCC patients did not benefit from TACE treatment because intermediate-stage HCC encompasses a wide variety of HCCs. Owing to remarkable progress in systemic therapy, including molecular-targeted therapy for advanced-stage HCC, the standard treatment of HCC has recently shifted to systemic therapy.
  • 277
  • 19 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Transoral Outlet Reduction for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
Obesity is a chronic relapsing disease of global pandemic proportions. In this context, an increasing number of patients are undergoing bariatric surgery, which is considered the most effective weight loss treatment for long-term improvement in obesity-related comorbidities. One of the most popular bariatric surgeries is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).
  • 292
  • 15 Jun 2023
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