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Advances in Anti-Melanoma Targeted Small Molecules and Mechanisms
Malignant melanoma is one of the most malignant of all cancers. Melanoma occurs at the epidermo–dermal interface of the skin and mucosa, where small vessels and lymphatics are abundant. Consequently, from the onset of the disease, melanoma easily metastasizes to other organs throughout the body via lymphatic and blood circulation. The most effective treatment method is surgical resection, and other attempted methods, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and gene therapy, have not yet produced sufficient results. Since melanogenesis is a unique biochemical pathway that functions only in melanocytes and their neoplastic counterparts, melanoma cells, the development of drugs that target melanogenesis is a promising area of research. Melanin consists of small-molecule derivatives that are always synthesized by melanoma cells. Amelanosis reflects the macroscopic visibility of color changes (hypomelanosis). Under microscopy, melanin pigments and their precursors are present in amelanotic melanoma cells. Tumors can be easily targeted by small molecules that chemically mimic melanogenic substrates. Small-molecule melanin metabolites are toxic to melanocytes and melanoma cells and can kill them.
28 Nov 2022
The Hazards of Skin Glycation and Related Inhibitors
Skin saccharification, a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins, e.g., dermal collagen and naturally occurring reducing sugars, is one of the basic root causes of endogenous skin aging. During the reaction, a series of complicated glycation products produced at different reaction stages and pathways are usually collectively referred to as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs cause cellular dysfunction through the modification of intracellular molecules and accumulate in tissues with aging. AGEs are also associated with a variety of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, renal failure (uremia), and Alzheimer’s disease. AGEs accumulate in the skin with age and are amplified through exogenous factors, e.g., ultraviolet radiation, resulting in wrinkles, loss of elasticity, dull yellowing, and other skin problems.
24 Nov 2022
Applications of Curcumin in Wound-Healing
Wound healing is an intricate process of tissue repair or remodeling that occurs in response to injury. Plants and plant-derived bioactive constituents are well explored in the treatment of various types of wounds. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic substance that has been used since ancient times in Ayurveda for its healing properties, as it reduces inflammation and acts on several healing stages.
11 Nov 2022
The Pathogenesis of Alopecia Areata
Alopecia areata is a multifactorial autoimmune-based disease with a complex pathogenesis. As in all autoimmune diseases, genetic predisposition is key. The collapse of the immune privilege of the hair follicle leading to scalp loss is a major pathogenic event in alopecia areata. The microbiota considered a bacterial ecosystem located in a specific area of the human body could somehow influence the pathogenesis of alopecia areata, as it occurs in other autoimmune diseases. Moreover, the Next Generation Sequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and the metagenomic methodology have provided an excellent characterization of the microbiota.
04 Nov 2022
Tranexamic Acid in Melasma and Sun-Induced Hyperpigmentation Treatment
Tranexamic acid (TXA) has anti-plasmin activity and has been shown when administered orally to be effective against melasma, for which it is considered first-line pharmacotherapy. Several studies have shown that topically applied TXA is also effective against melasma and skin hyperpigmentation caused by sunburn and inflammation. The TXA concentration in the epidermis and dermis/vasculature has been estimated from its distribution in the skin after closed application, and topically applied TXA has thus been shown to act on neutrophils and mast cells in the dermis and on the vascular system.
04 Nov 2022
The Biological Effects of Retinoids in the Skin
In the early 20th century, retinol (commonly known as vitamin A) was isolated and characterized as an essential nutrient for human health. Retinoids are natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives that are effective for the prevention and the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers. The effects of retinoid signaling on skin physiology have been studied extensively.
01 Nov 2022
Atopic Dermatitis (AD)
The skin harbors a huge number of different microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and viruses, and it acts as a protective shield to prevent the invasion of pathogens and to maintain the health of the commensal microbiota. Several studies, in fact, have shown the importance of the skin microbiota for healthy skin. This balance can be altered by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to the development of skin disease, such as acne vulgaris (AV), atopic dermatitis (AD) and rosacea (RS).
27 Oct 2022
Silver Nanoparticles for Chronic Wound Management
Infections are the primary cause of death from burns and diabetic wounds. The clinical difficulty of treating wound infections with conventional antibiotics has progressively increased and reached a critical level, necessitating a paradigm change for enhanced chronic wound care. The most prevalent bacterium linked with these infections is Staphylococcus aureus, and the advent of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has posed a substantial therapeutic challenge. Most existing wound dressings are ineffective and suffer from constraints such as insufficient antibacterial activity, toxicity, failure to supply enough moisture to the wound, and poor mechanical performance. Using ineffective wound dressings might prolong the healing process of a wound. To meet this requirement, nanoscale scaffolds with their desirable qualities, which include the potential to distribute bioactive agents, a large surface area, enhanced mechanical capabilities, the ability to imitate the extracellular matrix (ECM), and high porosity, have attracted considerable interest. The incorporation of nanoparticles into nanofiber scaffolds constitutes a novel approach to “nanoparticle dressing” that has acquired significant popularity for wound healing. Due to their remarkable antibacterial capabilities, silver nanoparticles are attractive materials for wound healing.
22 Oct 2022
Influence of Sleep and Western Diet in Psoriasis
The World Health Organization (WHO) reports psoriasis (PsO) as one of the five diseases that drastically influence patients’ quality of life. PsO is a systemic, chronic inflammatory skin disease related to epidermal keratinocyte hyperplasia and epidermal immune cell over-activation via the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis. It is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, with a prevalence of 1–2% worldwide, and almost 6–11% of patients with PsO may have inflammatory arthropathy (psoriatic arthritis).
21 Oct 2022
Desmosomes are mirroring, transmembrane protein chains that connect the intermediate filament networks of neighbouring cells. Each chain continuously (dis)assembles due to the turnover of five desmosomal protein types: desmoplakin, plakoglobin, plakophilins, desmocollins and desmogleins. The expression of two genes is critical to the formation of all desmosomes: namely DSP, encoding two differently spliced desmoplakin proteins (DPI and DPII) and JUP, encoding plakoglobin (PG). Meanwhile, plakophilins, desmocollins and desmogleins are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and are therefore encoded by multiple genes.
20 Oct 2022
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Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
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