Topic Review
Utility of Military Teledermoscopy in Pandemic Era
Skin disease remains a common complaint among deployed service members. To mitigate the limited supply of dermatologists in the U.S. Military Health System, teledermatology has been harnessed as a specialist extender platform, allowing for online consultations in remote deployed settings. Operational teledermatology has played a critical role in reductions of medical evacuations with significant cost-savings. When direct in-person lesion visualization is unattainable, teledermoscopy can be harnessed as an effective diagnostic tool to distinguish suspicious skin lesions. Teledermoscopy has the versatile capacity for streamlined incorporation into the existing asynchronous telemedicine platforms utilized worldwide among deployed U.S. military healthcare providers. In terms of clinical utility, teledermoscopy offers a unique and timely opportunity to improve diagnostic accuracy, early detection rates, and prognostic courses for dermatological conditions. Such improvements will further reduce medical evacuations and separations, thereby improving mission readiness and combat effectiveness. As mission goals are safeguarded, associated operational budget costs are also preserved. This innovative, cost-effective technology merits integration into the U.S. Military Health System (MHS).
  • 24
  • 02 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Biomarkers in Cutaneous Melanoma
Melanoma is the most frequent of the aggressive cutaneous malignancies, being the first cause of death for patients with skin cancer. Melanoma is considered the tumor with the highest mutation rate. Mutations in the BRAF gene are present in 50–60% of melanomas and the CDKN2A gene is altered in 16–41% of melanomas.
  • 36
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Metabolomics in Atopic Eczema
Atopic eczema (AE) is an inflammatory skin disorder affecting approximately 20% of children worldwide and early onset can lead to asthma and allergies. Metabolomics, the analysis of small molecules in the skin produced by the host and microbes, opens a window to observe the mechanisms of the disease which then may lead to new drug targets for AE treatment. 
  • 27
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Regulatory Roles of Estrogens in Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease of the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis. The severity of psoriasis has been reported as higher in men than in women. The immunoregulatory role of female sex hormones has been proposed to be one of the factors responsible for sex differences. Among female sex hormones, estrogens have been suggested to be significantly involved in the development of psoriasis by various epidemiological and in vitro studies.
  • 46
  • 20 Sep 2022
Topic Review
HA Filler-Induced Vascular Occlusion
Biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA, hyaluronan) gel implants have altered the therapeutic landscape of surgery and medicine, fostering an array of innovative products that include viscosurgical aids, synovial supplements, and drug-eluting nanomaterials. However, it is perhaps the explosive growth in the cosmetic applications of injectable dermal fillers that has captured the brightest spotlight, emerging as the dominant modality in plastic surgery and aesthetic medicine. The popularity surge with which injectable HA fillers have risen to in vogue status has also brought a concomitant increase in the incidence of once-rare iatrogenic vaso-occlusive injuries ranging from disfiguring facial skin necrosis to disabling neuro-ophthalmological sequelae. As researchers' understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries has evolved, supplemented by more than a century of astute observations, the formulation of novel therapeutic and preventative strategies has permitted the amelioration of this burdensome complication.
  • 42
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Apoptosis in Pemphigus Vulgaris
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an IgG autoantibody-mediated, potentially fatal mucocutaneous disease manifested by progressive non-healing erosions and blisters. Beyond acting to inhibit adhesion molecules, PVIgGs elicit a unique process of programmed cell death and detachment of epidermal keratinocytes termed apoptolysis. Mitochondrial damage by antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) has proven to be a critical link in this process.
  • 26
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
The interleukin-1 Family Cytokines, Receptors and Co-Receptors
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) family is involved in the correct functioning and regulation of the innate immune system, linking innate and adaptative immune responses. This complex family is composed by several cytokines, receptors, and co-receptors, all working in a balanced way to maintain homeostasis. 
  • 60
  • 06 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Pruritus in Chronic Kidney Disease
Chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus (CKDaP) is an often under-diagnosed and under-recognized condition, despite its considerable prevalence within the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. Universally accepted guidelines are also lacking. The true prevalence of CKDaP worldwide therefore remains unknown, although its negative impact on mortality and health-related quality of life outcomes is very clear. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the onset of CKDaP are only partly understood. CKDaP is currently believed to be caused by a multifactorial process, from local skin changes, metabolic alterations, the development of neuropathy and dysregulation of opioid pathways, and psychological factors. Much work has been carried out towards a more systematic and structured approach to clinical diagnosis. Various tools are now available to assess the severity of CKDaP. Many of these tools require greater validation before they can be incorporated into the guidelines and into routine clinical practice. Further efforts are also needed in order to increase the awareness of clinicians and patients so that they can identify the CKDaP signs and symptoms in a timely manner.
  • 118
  • 31 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Biomarkers in Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly heterogeneous inflammatory disease regarding both its pathophysiology and clinical manifestations. However, it is treated according to the “one-size-fits-all” approach, which may restrict response to treatment. Thus, there is an unmet need for the stratification of patients with AD into distinct endotypes and clinical phenotypes based on biomarkers that will contribute to the development of precision medicine in AD. The development of reliable biomarkers that may distinguish which patients with AD are most likely to benefit from specific targeted therapies is a complex procedure and to date none of the identified candidate biomarkers for AD has been validated for use in routine clinical practice. Reliable biomarkers in AD are expected to improve diagnosis, evaluate disease severity, predict the course of disease, the development of comorbidities, or the therapeutic response, resulting in effective and personalized treatment of AD. 
  • 41
  • 25 Aug 2022
Topic Review
HMGB1 in Cutaneous Melanoma
High-mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that plays a key role in acute and chronic inflammation. HMGB1 is closely associated with cell survival and proliferation and may be directly involved in tumor cell metastasis development thanks to its ability to promote cell migration. HMGB1 is closely associated with cell survival and proliferation and may be directly involved in tumor cell metastasis development thanks to its ability to promote cell migration. 
  • 73
  • 24 Aug 2022
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