Topic Review
N-Acetylcysteine in Trichotillomania
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (C5H9NO3S) is the acetylated precursor of the amino acid L-cysteine and functions as a glutamate modulator and antioxidant. It is widely known as a mucolytic, an antidote for acetaminophen overdose, and a nephroprotective agent for contrast administration. Trichotillomania (TTM), excoriation disorder, onychophagia, and onychotillomania are categorized as body focused repetitive behavior (BFRB) disorders, causing damage to the skin, hair, and/or nails with clinically significant psychosocial consequences.
  • 422
  • 13 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Trichophyton indotineae
Trichophyton (T.) indotineae is a newly identified dermatophyte species that has been found in a near-epidemic form on the Indian subcontinent. There is evidence of its spread from the Indian subcontinent to a number of countries worldwide. The fungus is identical to genotype VIII within the T. mentagrophytes/T. interdigitale species complex, which was described in 2019 by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of the dermatophyte.
  • 106
  • 27 Jul 2022
Topic Review
3D-Bioprinting for Chronic Wound
Skin substitutes can provide a temporary or permanent treatment option for chronic wounds. The selection of skin substitutes depends on several factors, including the type of wound and its severity. Full-thickness skin grafts (SGs) require a well-vascularised bed and sometimes will lead to contraction and scarring formation. Besides, donor sites for full-thickness skin grafts are very limited if the wound area is big, and it has been proven to have the lowest survival rate compared to thick- and thin-split thickness. Tissue engineering technology has introduced new advanced strategies since the last decades to fabricate the composite scaffold via the 3D-bioprinting approach as a tissue replacement strategy. Considering the current global donor shortage for autologous split-thickness skin graft (ASSG), skin 3D-bioprinting has emerged as a potential alternative to replace the ASSG treatment. The three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting technique yields scaffold fabrication with the combination of biomaterials and cells to form bioinks. 
  • 367
  • 08 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Aberrant Expression of Immunohistochemical Markers
Malignant melanoma can rarely present with unusual staining patterns. This includes aberrant expression of non-melanocytic markers and/ or lack of expression of specific melanocytic markers. 
  • 203
  • 24 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Acne Inversa
Acne inversa, namely, Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting ~1% of the global population. HS typically occurs after puberty, with the average age of onset in the second or third decades of life and with a female predominance. Approximately one third of patients are genetically predisposed. Moreover, lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, play a crucial role in the clinical course of HS.
  • 337
  • 29 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Acne Syndromes and Mosaicism
Abnormal mosaicism is the coexistence of cells with at least two genotypes, by the time of birth, in an individual derived from a single zygote, which leads to a disease phenotype. Somatic mosaicism can be further categorized into segmental mosaicism and nonsegmental somatic mosaicism. Acne is a chronic illness characterized by inflammatory changes around and in the pilosebaceous units, commonly due to hormone- and inflammatory signaling-mediated factors. Several systemic disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and seborrhoea-acne-hirsutism-androgenetic alopecia syndrome have classically been associated with acne. Autoinflammatory syndromes, including PAPA, PASH, PAPASH, PsAPASH, PsaPSASH, PASS, and SAPHO syndromes include acneiform lesions as a key manifestation. Mosaic germline mutations in the FGFR2 gene have been associated with Apert syndrome and nevus comedonicus, two illnesses that are accompanied by acneiform lesions.
  • 245
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Advances in Anti-Melanoma Targeted Small Molecules and Mechanisms
Malignant melanoma is one of the most malignant of all cancers. Melanoma occurs at the epidermo–dermal interface of the skin and mucosa, where small vessels and lymphatics are abundant. Consequently, from the onset of the disease, melanoma easily metastasizes to other organs throughout the body via lymphatic and blood circulation. The most effective treatment method is surgical resection, and other attempted methods, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and gene therapy, have not yet produced sufficient results. Since melanogenesis is a unique biochemical pathway that functions only in melanocytes and their neoplastic counterparts, melanoma cells, the development of drugs that target melanogenesis is a promising area of research. Melanin consists of small-molecule derivatives that are always synthesized by melanoma cells. Amelanosis reflects the macroscopic visibility of color changes (hypomelanosis). Under microscopy, melanin pigments and their precursors are present in amelanotic melanoma cells. Tumors can be easily targeted by small molecules that chemically mimic melanogenic substrates. Small-molecule melanin metabolites are toxic to melanocytes and melanoma cells and can kill them. 
  • 52
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Aesthetic Medicine Safety for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease patients
Autoimmune thyroid diseases are the most common organ-specific autoimmune diseases, affecting 2–5% of the world’s population. Due to the autoimmune background of thyroid diseases, we analyzed a wide range of cosmetic procedures, from minimally invasive cosmetic injections (mesotherapy) to highly invasive procedures, such as lifting threads. Out of the seven categories of treatments in aesthetic medicine analyzed by us—hyaluronic acid, botulinum toxin, autologous platelet-rich plasma, autologous fat grafting, lifting threads, IPL and laser treatment and mesotherapy—only two, mesotherapy and lifting threads, are not recommended.
  • 108
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Afro-Ethnic Hairstyling Trends, Risks, Recommendations
Hair is an essential part of a person’s identity, self-perception, and can be a way they communicate with those around them. It can reflect not only someone’s health but their sense of style, and can be changed often and easily to portray an individual’s changing attitudes and trends. Hairstyles among women of African descent, thus, vary considerably by country, region, occupation, generation, and personal style. Today, the Black hair care industry is a half-trillion-dollar industry. In fact, Black women spend more on their hair than any other ethnic group. There has been substantial debate and discussion regarding the association between certain hairstyles worn by Black women and their connection to hair disorders and other health conditions common to this population.
  • 123
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
AHR and NRF2 in Atopic Dermatitis
Skin is constantly exposed to environmental insults, including toxic chemicals and oxidative stress. These insults often provoke perturbation of epidermal homeostasis and lead to characteristic skin diseases. AHR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) are transcription factors that induce a battery of cytoprotective genes encoding detoxication and antioxidant enzymes in response to environmental insults. In addition to their basic functions as key regulators of xenobiotic and oxidant detoxification, it has been revealed that AHR and NRF2 also play critical roles in the maintenance of skin homeostasis. In fact, specific disruption of AHR function in the skin has been found to be associated with the pathogenesis of various skin diseases, most prevalently atopic dermatitis (AD).
  • 325
  • 19 Apr 2022
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