Topic Review
Metastatic Spinal Tumors
Spine metastases are a common life-threatening complication of advanced-stage malignancies and often result in poor prognosis. Symptomatic spine metastases develop in the course of about 10% of malignant neoplasms. Therefore, it is essential for contemporary medicine to understand metastatic processes in order to find appropriate, targeted therapeutic options. There appears more and more detailed knowledge about cancer and metastasis, but these transformations are extremely complicated, e.g., due to the complexity of reactions, the variety of places where they occur, or the participation of both tumor cells and host cells in these transitions.
  • 26
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Benefits of Table Tennis for Brain Health Maintenance and Prevention of Dementia
Table tennis is an extremely popular sport throughout the world as it requires no expensive equipment, specialized amenities, or physical contact among players, and the pace of play can be adapted to allow participation by players of all skill levels, ages, and abilities. It is an aerobic-dominant sport driven primarily by the phosphagen system because rallies are relatively brief (several seconds) and separated by longer rest periods. Several studies have shown that physical interventions including table tennis can help prevent cognitive decline and dementia. Accordingly, the present paper provides an overview of the basic physical and cognitive demands of table tennis, reviews previous studies reporting improvements in physical and brain health across different non-clinical and clinical populations, and critically evaluates the usefulness of table tennis intervention for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. This review suggests that table tennis intervention could be a powerful strategy to prevent cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly. 
  • 129
  • 26 Sep 2022
Topic Review
SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Parkinson’s Disease Overlaps
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s disease, globally. Dopaminergic neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta and aggregation of misfolded alpha-synuclein are the PD hallmarks, accompanied by motor and non-motor symptoms. Several viruses have been linked to the appearance of a post-infection parkinsonian phenotype. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has evolved from a novel pneumonia to a multifaceted syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations, among which neurological sequalae appear insidious and potentially long-lasting.
  • 32
  • 13 Sep 2022
Topic Review
General Characteristics of Exendin-4
Exendin-4 (Ex-4), better known in its synthetic form and used clinically as exenatide, applied in the treatment of diabetes, induces a beneficial impact on nerve cells, and shows promising effects in obstructive lung diseases.
  • 25
  • 13 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Therapeutic Effect of Dutasteride in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs) in the cerebral cortex, brainstem and spinal cord, with consequent weakness, atrophy and the progressive paralysis of all muscles. There is currently no medical cure, and riluzole and edaravone are the only two known approved drugs for treating this condition. However, they have limited efficacy, and hence there is a need to find new molecules. Dutasteride, a dual inhibitor of type 1 and type 2 5α-reductase (5AR) enzymes, the therapeutic purposes of which, to date, are the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia, shows great anti-ALS properties by the molecular-topology methodology.
  • 36
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Clinical Neurophysiology and Genetics of Dystonia Diagnosis
Dystonia diagnosis is based on clinical examination performed by a neurologist with expertise in movement disorders. Clues that indicate the diagnosis of a movement disorder such as dystonia are dystonic movements, dystonic postures, and three additional physical signs (mirror dystonia, overflow dystonia, and geste antagonists/sensory tricks). Despite advances in research, there is no diagnostic test with a high level of accuracy for the dystonia diagnosis. Clinical neurophysiology and genetics might support the clinician in the diagnostic process. Neurophysiology played a role in untangling dystonia pathophysiology, demonstrating characteristic reduction in inhibition of central motor circuits and alterations in the somatosensory system. The neurophysiologic measure with the greatest evidence in identifying patients affected by dystonia is the somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT). Other parameters need further confirmations and more solid evidence to be considered as support for the dystonia diagnosis. Genetic testing should be guided by characteristics such as age at onset, body distribution, associated features, and coexistence of other movement disorders (parkinsonism, myoclonus, and other hyperkinesia). 
  • 46
  • 06 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Synaptic Disruption by Soluble Oligomers in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Neurodegenerative diseases are the result of progressive dysfunction of the neuronal activity and subsequent neuronal death. Currently, the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases are by far Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Although amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the neuropathological hallmarks for AD and Lewy bodies (LB) are the hallmark for PD, current evidence strongly suggests that oligomers seeding the neuropathological hallmarks are more toxic and disease-relevant in both pathologies. The presence of small soluble oligomers is the common bond between AD and PD: amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) and Tau oligomers (TauOs) in AD and α-synuclein oligomers (αSynOs) in PD. Such oligomers appear to be particularly increased during the early pathological stages, targeting synapses at vulnerable brain regions leading to synaptic plasticity disruption, synapse loss, inflammation, excitation to inhibition imbalance and cognitive impairment. Absence of TauOs at synapses in individuals with strong AD disease pathology but preserved cognition suggests that mechanisms of resilience may be dependent on the interactions between soluble oligomers and their synaptic targets.
  • 40
  • 31 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Machine Learning in Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is being applied to a wide range of surgical fields as a diagnostic tool to protect patients from neural injuries that may occur during surgery. However, several contributing factors complicate the interpretation of IONM, and it is labor- and training-intensive. Meanwhile, machine learning (ML)-based medical research has been growing rapidly, and many studies on the clinical application of ML algorithms have been published.
  • 34
  • 24 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Optical Coherence Tomography in Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative, potentially disabling disease of the central nervous system. OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) and OCT-A (Optical Coherence Tomography with Angiography) are imaging techniques for the retina and choroid that are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of ophthalmological conditions. 
  • 57
  • 10 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Plant-Derived Nutrients and Their Impact on Cognition
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, with the risk of developing it attributed to non-modifiable and modifiable factors. A plant-based diet may protect against cognitive decline, due to the effects of plant-based nutrients such as vitamins, antioxidants, and fiber.
  • 59
  • 08 Aug 2022
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