Topic Review
WMHs and Vascular Cognitive Impairment
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of presumed vascular origin are one of the imaging markers of cerebral small-vessel disease, which is prevalent in older individuals and closely associated with the occurrence and development of cognitive impairment. The heterogeneous nature of the imaging manifestations of WMHs creates difficulties for early detection and diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) associated with WMHs. Because the underlying pathological processes and biomarkers of WMHs and their development in cognitive impairment remain uncertain, progress in prevention and treatment is lagging. For this reason,this paper reviews the status of research on the features of WMHs related to VCI,as well as mediators associated with both WMHs and VCI,and summarizes potential treatment strategies for the prvention and intervention in WMHs associated with VCI.
  • 94
  • 24 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Whole-Brain Models
Whole-brain models are sets of equations that describe the dynamics and interactions between neural populations in different brain regions. Most whole-brain models are built considering three basic elements: brain parcellation, anatomical connectivity matrix, and local dynamics.
  • 566
  • 21 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Vitamins and Neurodegenerative Disease
Acquiring the recommended daily allowance of vitamins is crucial for maintaining homeostatic balance in humans and other animals. A deficiency in or dysregulation of vitamins adversely affects the neuronal metabolism, which may lead to neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we discuss how novel vitamin-based approaches aid in attenuating abnormal neuronal functioning in neurodegeneration-based brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Prion disease. Vitamins show their therapeutic activity in Parkinson’s disease by antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, different water- and lipid-soluble vitamins have also prevented amyloid beta and tau pathology. On the other hand, some results also show no correlation between vitamin action and the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Some vitamins also exhibit toxic activity too. 
  • 121
  • 29 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Virus-Induced Neuropathogenesis
Viral infections may cause neurological disorders by directly inducing oxidative stress and interrupting immune system function, both of which contribute to neuronal death. Several reports have described the neurological manifestations in Covid-19 patients where, in severe cases of the infection, brain inflammation and encephalitis are common. Recently, extensive research-based studies have revealed and acknowledged the clinical and preventive roles of melatonin in some viral diseases. Melatonin has been shown to have antiviral properties against several viral infections which are accompanied by neurological symptoms. The beneficial properties of melatonin relate to its properties as a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunoregulatory molecule and its neuroprotective effects.
  • 148
  • 09 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Virtual Reality Therapy for Depression
Virtual reality (VR) describes a family of technologies which immerse users in sensorily-stimulating virtual environments. Such technologies have increasingly found applications in the treatment of neurological and mental health disorders. Depression, anxiety, and other mood abnormalities are of concern in the growing older population—especially those who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs).
  • 186
  • 11 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Type I Diabetes Mellitus
A considerable endeavor had taken place in order to understand the associated challenges for children and adolescents with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD) and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) but also in order to describe the necessary skills and approaches that the care givers have to develop to assist both children and parents.
  • 228
  • 14 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Treatment Resistance in Early Psychosis
Treatment resistance is prevalent in early intervention in psychosis services, and causes a significant burden for the individual. A wide range of variables are shown to contribute to treatment resistance in first episode psychosis (FEP). Heterogeneity in illness course and the complex, multidimensional nature of the concept of recovery calls for an evidence base to better inform practice at an individual level. Current gold standard treatments, adopting a ‘one-size fits all’ approach, may not be addressing the needs of many individuals.
  • 154
  • 09 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Traumatic Brachial Plexus
Traumatic brachial plexus injuries are rare but serious consequences of major traumas. Pre-ganglionic lesions are considered irreparable, while post-ganglionic injuries can be potentially treated if an early diagnosis is available.
  • 135
  • 18 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Traumatic Axonal Injury in Concussion
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) indicates the tearing of axons by indirect shearing forces during acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the brain or direct head trauma. Since the 1960s, histopathological ones after autopsy have revealed TAI in patients with concussion who died from other causes. The diagnosis of TAI in live patients with concussion is limited because conventional brain MRI is not sensitive to detecting TAI in concussion.
  • 59
  • 02 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Transitional Model for SCZ
Translational psychiatry proposes a new psychopathological paradigm in Schizophrenia (SCZ). Firstly an important acquisition is to consider SCZ as a neurodevelopmental disease. SCZ spectrum is a condition in which genes and environment interact in different phases of the development, causing an individual neurobiological vulnerability. Continuous distress may lead to transdiagnostic conditions as emotional dysregulation, SCZ basic symptoms, psychosis. An early and timely diagnosis and treatment is mandatory, too watchful and waiting conservative approach may risk to increase DUP and worsen prognosis and outcome in some cases.In this context translational psychiatry may change psychiatrist clinical approach reconsidering old categories, stimulating a careful analysis of risk factors, and promoting the correct use of new and safer molecules.
  • 149
  • 18 Mar 2021
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