Topic Review
Transitional Model for SCZ
Translational psychiatry proposes a new psychopathological paradigm in Schizophrenia (SCZ). Firstly an important acquisition is to consider SCZ as a neurodevelopmental disease. SCZ spectrum is a condition in which genes and environment interact in different phases of the development, causing an individual neurobiological vulnerability. Continuous distress may lead to transdiagnostic conditions as emotional dysregulation, SCZ basic symptoms, psychosis. An early and timely diagnosis and treatment is mandatory, too watchful and waiting conservative approach may risk to increase DUP and worsen prognosis and outcome in some cases.In this context translational psychiatry may change psychiatrist clinical approach reconsidering old categories, stimulating a careful analysis of risk factors, and promoting the correct use of new and safer molecules.
  • 167
  • 18 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Primary Motor Cortex
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a novel technique to stimulate the human brain through the scalp. Over the years, identifying the optimal brain region and stimulation parameters has been a subject of debate in the literature on therapeutic uses of repetitive TMS (rTMS). Nevertheless, the primary motor cortex (M1) has been a conventional target for rTMS to treat motor symptoms, such as hemiplegia and spasticity, as it controls the voluntary movement of the body. However, with an expanding knowledge base of the M1 cortical and subcortical connections, M1-rTMS has shown a therapeutic efficacy that goes beyond the conventional motor rehabilitation to involve pain, headache, fatigue, dysphagia, speech and voice impairments, sleep disorders, cognitive dysfunction, disorders of consciousness, anxiety, depression, and bladder dysfunction.
  • 172
  • 19 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Tics and Emotions
Tics can be associated with neurological disorders and are thought to be the result of dysfunctional basal ganglia pathways. In Tourette Syndrome (TS), excess dopamine in the striatum is thought to excite the thalamo-cortical circuits, producing tics. When external stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, more dopamine is produced, furthering the excitation of tic-producing pathways. Emotional processing structures in the limbic are also activated during tics, providing further evidence of a possible emotional component in motor ticking behaviors.
  • 135
  • 17 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Therapy for Post-Stroke Spasticity
ESWT is safe and free of undesirable side effects. The mechanism of action of ESWT on muscles affected by spasticity is still unknown. To date, no standard parameters of ESWT in post-stroke spasticity regarding intensity, frequency, location, and the number of sessions has been established.
  • 162
  • 24 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Therapeutic Plasmapheresis with Albumin Replacement in Alzheimer’s Disease
Reducing the burden of beta-amyloid accumulation and toxic autoimmunity-related proteins, one of the recognized pathophysiological markers of chronic and common neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), may be a valid alternative therapy to reduce their accumulation in the brain and thus reduce the progression of these disorders.
  • 132
  • 11 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Therapeutic Effect of Dutasteride in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs) in the cerebral cortex, brainstem and spinal cord, with consequent weakness, atrophy and the progressive paralysis of all muscles. There is currently no medical cure, and riluzole and edaravone are the only two known approved drugs for treating this condition. However, they have limited efficacy, and hence there is a need to find new molecules. Dutasteride, a dual inhibitor of type 1 and type 2 5α-reductase (5AR) enzymes, the therapeutic purposes of which, to date, are the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia, shows great anti-ALS properties by the molecular-topology methodology.
  • 70
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
The Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway
Tryptophan (TRP) is one of the essential amino acids, which participates in protein synthesis. The tryptophan’s main metabolic route is the kynurenine pathway (KP) through which approximately 90-95% of TRP degrades into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and other bioactive metabolites. The appropriate amount of NAD+ is essential to maintain the operation and the viability of cells. The other molecules are neurotoxic, neuroprotective, oxidant, antioxidant, and/or immune modifiers. They play an important role in the function of the brain and the peripheral tissues. The change in the levels of the bioactive molecules is considered to contribute to the development of a wide range of illnesses from cancer to immunologic, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric diseases.
  • 1510
  • 10 Aug 2021
Topic Review
The Role of Polysaccharide in Treating Neurodegenerative Disorders
The prevalence of neurodegenerative pathologies increases significantly with growing life expectancy. Neurodegenerative diseases including common diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) impose a global public health burden. In this context, natural products could play a leading role in the search for new drugs for the treatment of neurodegeneration. Of note, more than 80 percent of drugs are of natural origin. Natural polysaccharides (general formula of Cx(H2O)y; where x is number 200_2500) occurs naturally in living matter (on the contrary to polysaccharides combined artificially in the process of organic synthesis) and principally play structural and storage functions. Natural polysaccharides can be classified according to their origin, namely plants (e.g., starch, cellulose), algae (e.g., agar, alginates), animals (e.g., chitin, hyaluronic acid), bacteria (e.g., dextran, polylactosamine), and fungal (e.g., chitosan, elsinan). As one of the most widely distributed biomolecules in nature, natural polysaccharides have received considerable attention because of their diverse pharmacological activity as inhibitors of cellular processes, with their antioxidant, anticoagulant, antithrombotic and anticancer effects.
  • 154
  • 09 Feb 2022
Topic Review
The Peritumoral Zone in Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas
Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) are heterogeneous and poorly circumscribed neoplasms with isolated tumor cells that extend beyond the margins of the lesion depicted on MRI. Efforts to demarcate the glioma core from the surrounding healthy brain led to define an intermediate region, the so-called peritumoral zone (PTZ).
  • 107
  • 21 Apr 2022
Topic Review
TENG-Based Self-Powered Neuroprosthetics
TENG-Based Self-Powered Neuroprosthetics is a neuroprosthetic system using a triboelectric nanogenerator as the power source to generator the current pulses required for neural stimulations. The thin-film triboelectric nanogenerator can be attached onto the heart or buried under the skin to convert the mechanical energy from the movement of organs, such as heart beat, or the hand tapping onto the skin to electrical current pulses. This system is promising to realize a fully self-powered neural modulation with much reduced device complexity. 
  • 337
  • 10 Oct 2020
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