Topic Review
Warfarin has been utilized for decades as an effective anticoagulant in patients with a history of strong risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE).
  • 691
  • 05 May 2021
Topic Review
Blood Pressure Sensors
In our unique transdisciplinary approach, we studied the fundamentals of blood pressure and examined its measuring modalities while focusing on their clinical use and sensing principles to identify material functionalities. Then, we carefully reviewed various categories of functional materials utilized in sensor building blocks allowing for comparative analysis of the performance of a wide range of materials throughout the sensor operational-life cycle. Not only this provides essential data to enhance the materials’ properties and optimize their performance, but also, it highlights new perspectives and provides suggestions to develop the next generation pressure sensors for clinical use.
  • 596
  • 10 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Hypobaric Hypoxia and Heart
Under hypobaric hypoxia contidition, the principal impact on humans is due to the low atmospheric pressure  and the subsequent proportional decrease in partial oxygen pressure (PO2)  in the inspired air, generating a reduction in the bioavailability of oxygen in organs, tissues and cells at high altitude.
  • 544
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Pathogenesis of COVID-19
The systemic manifestations commonly observed in COVID-19 patients include hypertension, arterial and venous thromboembolism, kidney disease, cerebrovascular disorders, and diabetes mellitus). These clinical findings strongly suggest that the virus is targeting the endothelium. Here we report a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the evidence showing that the endothelium is a key target organ in COVID-19, playing a fundamental role in its pathogenesis.
  • 507
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Polyurethanes in Biomedicine
Due to their mechanical properties, ranging from flexible to hard materials, polyurethanes (PUs) have been widely used in many industrial and biomedical applications. PU characteristics, along with their biocompatibility, make them successful biomaterials in short and medium time applications.  The most important biomedical applications of PUs include antibacterial surfaces and catheters, blood oxygenators, dialysis devices, stents, cardiac valves, vascular prostheses, bioadhesives/surgical dressings/pressure sensitive adhesives, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds and electrospinning, nerve generation, pacemaker lead insulation and coatings for breast implants. The diversity of polyurethane properties due to the ease of bulk and surface modification plays a vital role in their applications. 
  • 465
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Polymeric Nanoparticles in Cardiovascular Diseases
Nanoparticles, including biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles, are able to increase the efficiency and reduce the degradability of natural polyphenols, thus increasing their beneficial abilities in the target tissues. Resveratrol-, quercetin-, or curcumin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles have been shown to markedly reduce reactive oxygen species formation, the inflammatory process, apoptosis, lipid peroxidation, cardiac hypertrophy, and even to delay myocardium injury due to ischemia/reperfusion. Thus, polymeric nanoparticles represent a promising tool for the delivery of natural polyphenols to target tissues and enhance their desirable effects in the cardiovascular system.
  • 447
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Bayés’ Syndrome
Interatrial block associated with atrial arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation, define the Bayés’ Syndrome (called after Bayés de Luna, a proeminent cardiologist, who published the seminal paper about the problem of P-wave anomalies and interatrial blocks). Finding the signs of interatrial block on ECG represents a call for active screening of atrial fibrillation and starting of prophylactic anticoagulation in selected patients.  
  • 410
  • 09 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Pulse Wave Velocity
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple, reproducible and non-invasive technique to assess arterial stiffness. It estimates the velocity of arterial wave propagation to travel a known distance between two anatomic sites within the arterial system [1]. PWV has been established as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and is consequently used for diagnosis and prognosis in patients at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [2]; however, PWV's significance relies on the fact that arterial stiffness, specially of muscular arteries can be modified by interventions that improve endothelial function such as exercise training, which makes PWV an important tool for cardiovascular risk management [3].
  • 371
  • 24 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Chronic Kidney Disease
Patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) experience a huge cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events represent the leading causes of death. Folic acid and vitamin B12 could not only be mere cofactors in the homocysteine metabolism; they may have a direct action in determining tissue damage and cardiovascular risk. 
  • 367
  • 15 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Gla-Rich Protein in CKD
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to affect more than 10% of the global population and represents an increasing health and economic burden for the society. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important complication of CKD and the primary cause of death in these patients. Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), which is a common complication of CKD patients, involves changes in mineral ion homeostasis, bone quality and turnover, cardiovascular and soft tissue calcifications, highly contributing for cardiovascular outcomes. Vascular calcification (VC) is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. New diagnostic/prognostic tools are required for early detection of VC allowing interventional strategies. Gla-rich protein (GRP) is a cardiovascular calcification inhibitor, whose clinical utility still remained unknown. The present clinical study including a cohort of 80 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD (stages 2–4) explored, for the first time, correlations between levels of GRP in serum with CKD developmental stage, mineral metabolism markers, VC and pulse pressure (PP). The results shown an association between GRP, renal dysfunction and CKD-MBD. The relationship between low levels of GRP and vascular calcifications suggests a potential clinical utility for GRP as an early marker of vascular damage in CKD.
  • 364
  • 02 Nov 2020
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