Topic Review
Respiratory Viral Infection and Epithelial Immunity in Asthma
Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with asthma development and exacerbation in children and adults. In the course of immune responses to viruses, airway epithelial cells are the initial platform of innate immunity against viral invasion. Patients with severe asthma are more vulnerable than those with mild to moderate asthma to viral infections.
  • 7
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Probiotic Use in Allergic Rhinitis Management
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common medical condition affecting up to 40% of the general population. A type 2 immunity determines eosinophilic inflammation that, in turn, elicits typical nasal symptoms. Type 2 immunity is eminently characterized by polarization of innate and adaptative B and T cells, increased production of type 2 cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13, and impaired function of allergen-specific T regulatory cells (Tregs). This immunologic derangement promotes allergic inflammation, characterized by an abundant eosinophilic infiltrate and the presence of mast cells. The mast cells are activated by allergen exposure and release pro-inflammatory mediators, including histamine. These mediators interact with specific receptors and, consequently, are responsible for the appearance of typical AR symptoms: nasal itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion.
  • 20
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Hypersensitivity Reactions to Food Additives
Food additives (FAs) are commonly used in prosscessed foods, but hypersensitivity reactions to food additives (HFA) appears to be a rare phenomenon. Identification of the FA responsible for hypersensitivity and its treatment is difficult. Diagnosis is a challenge for the clinician and for the patient. A food diary is a helpful diagnostic tool. It allows diet therapy to be monitored based on the partial or complete elimination of products containing a harmful additive. An elimination diet must not be deficient, and symptomatic pharmacotherapy may be necessary if its application is ineffective.
  • 30
  • 21 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Dendrimers in Personalized Medicine
Dendrimers are a special class of synthetic macromolecules, constituted of branches built, step by step, around a central multifunctional core. Each layer of branching points creates a new “generation”. Most of the properties of dendrimers depend on the type of their terminal functions. Dendrimers are often considered as 3-dimensional soft nanoparticles, in opposition to hard metal nanoparticles. Despite the fact that nature has favored branching structures at all levels, from galaxies to trees and to dendritic cells, examples of branching at the molecular level are extremely rare. One can cite glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, and also some cases of branched lignin, but none of them have a precisely highly branched structure, as do dendrimers. Such unusual structure has generated a many expectations for dendrimers: a huge number of publications and patents exist in relation to medicine, including in relation to personalized medicine but have resulted in very poor clinical translation up to now. This entry focusses on some of the clinical trials carried out with dendrimers.
  • 45
  • 14 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Eosinophil Structure and Biology
Eosinophils are granulocytes with unique biology. The fact that these cells have been largely preserved during evolution strongly suggests that they play relevant physiological functions. Eosinophils have traditionally been classified as effector cells with prevalent cytotoxic activity, although recent evidence indicates that these cells may play a role in a wide range of homeostatic and regulatory functions.
  • 46
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Neurobiological Links between Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury
Neurological dysfunctions commonly occurs after mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although most TBI patients recover from such dysfunction in a short period of time, some present with persistent neurological deficits. Stress is a potential factor that is involved in recovery from neurological dysfunction after TBI. However, there has been limited research on the effects and mechanisms of stress on neurological dysfunctions due to TBI. The effects of TBI and stress on neurological dysfunctions and different brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus are investigated, and the neurobiological links and mechanisms between stress and TBI are explored.
  • 67
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Bioactivities of Turmeric Oil
Curcuma longa L. (syn. Curcuma domestica), commonly known as turmeric, is a perennial herb native to Asia. After curing, drying, and milling, turmeric rhizomes are usually employed as a dye, cosmetic, and food seasoning. Most pharmacological activities of turmeric have been explained by the properties of curcumin, mainly because turmeric oil has not been as extensively studied as curcuminoids. Turmeric rhizome oil (TO) is responsible for this spice’s characteristic taste and smell.
  • 77
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Chitosan Nanoparticles in Preclinical Testing of Atherosclerosis
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1–4)-linked 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (deacetylated units) and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (acetylated units). Chitosan is derived from chitin, a highly abundant natural biopolymer with a high cationic potential. Chitin is extracted from the exoskeleton of many living organisms, including crabs, shrimps, insects, and fungi.
  • 90
  • 15 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Monoclonal Antibodies for Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
H1-antihistamines (H1AH) represent the current mainstay of treatment for chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). However, the response to H1AH is often unsatisfactory, even with increased doses. Therefore, guidelines recommend the use of omalizumab as an add-on treatment in refractory CSU. This paved the way for the investigation of targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), in CSU. Omalizumab remains the best choice to treat refractory CSU. 
  • 29
  • 12 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by intense pruritus, eczematous lesions, and relapsing course. It presents with great clinical heterogeneity, while underlying pathogenetic mechanisms involve a complex interplay between a dysfunctional skin barrier, immune dysregulation, microbiome dysbiosis, genetic and environmental factors. All these interactions are shaping the landscape of AD endotypes and phenotypes. In the “era of allergy epidemic”, the role of food allergy (FA) in the prevention and management of AD is a recently explored area.
  • 115
  • 05 Aug 2022
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