Topic Review
β-Caryophyllene and Rheumatoid Arthritis
β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist that tempers inflammation. An interaction between the CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been suggested and PPAR-γ activation exerts anti-arthritic effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the therapeutic activity of BCP and to investigate PPAR-γ involvement in a collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) experimental model. CAIA was induced through intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal antibody cocktail and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 µg/100 µL/ip). CAIA animals were then randomized to orally receive either BCP (10 mg/kg/100 µL) or its vehicle (100 µL of corn oil). BCP significantly hampered the severity of the disease, reduced relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. BCP also decreased joint expression of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9. Arthritic joints showed increased COX2 and NF-kB mRNA expression and reduced expression of the PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha, PGC-1α, and PPAR-γ. These conditions were reverted following BCP treatment. Finally, BCP reduced NF-kB activation and increased PGC-1α and PPAR-γ expression in human articular chondrocytes stimulated with LPS. These effects were reverted by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that BCP ameliorates arthritis through a cross-talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ.
  • 491
  • 03 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Women with Schizophrenia and Related Disorders
Sex and age are important factors influencing physical and mental health in schizophrenia.
  • 90
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D Status and Allergy Outcomes
The very early onset of allergic diseases points to the specific vulnerability of the developing immune system to environmental changes and the development of primary intervention strategies is crucial to address this unparalleled burden. Vitamin D is known to have immunomodulatory functions. While allergic disease is multifactorial, associations with reduced sunlight exposure have led to the hypothesis that suboptimal vitamin D levels during critical early periods may be one possible explanation. Interventions to improve vitamin D status, especially in early life, may be the key to allergic disease prevention.
  • 80
  • 28 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D in Cardiovascular Diseases
Vitamin D represents a group of secosteroids involved in the calcium and phosphate metabolism. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxylcalciferol, exerts its biological mechanisms via the VDR which acts as a regulator of several target genes.
  • 107
  • 24 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin C and Multiple Pathophysiological Stages of COVID-19
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) is an essential nutrient with many biological roles that have been proven to play an important part in immune function; it serves as an antioxidant, an anti-viral, and exerts anti-thrombotic effects among many other physiological benefits. Research has proven that AA at pharmacological doses can be beneficial to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other respiratory illnesses, including sepsis. In addition, High-Dose Intravenous Vitamin C (HDIVC) has proven to be effective in patients with different viral diseases, such as influenza, chikungunya, Zika, and dengue. Moreover, HDIVC has been demonstrated to be very safe. Regarding COVID-19, vitamin C in addition to its antiviral properties, it can suppress the cytokine storm, reduce thrombotic complications, and diminish alveolar and vascular damage, among other benefits.
  • 124
  • 07 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Virucidal Activity of Different Mouthwashes
This entry describes the effect of mouthwash on the stability of the viral envelope and its ability to reduce the viral load.
  • 304
  • 31 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Vincristine-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy's Pharmacogenomics in Children with Cancer
Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is a debilitating side-effect of vincristine. It remains a challenge to predict which patients will suffer from VIPN. Pharmacogenomics may explain an individuals’ susceptibility to side-effects. 
  • 156
  • 08 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Vascular Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a comprehensive expression to identify a condition of chronic hyperglycemia whose causes derive from different metabolic disorders characterized by altered insulin secretion or faulty insulin effect on its targets or often both mechanisms . Atherosclerosis (ATS) is the most frequent cause of arterial vasculopathy and is undoubtedly an insidious condition: it is unlikely to be the trigger in coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease (PAD) on its own; instead, it acts together with other chronic degenerative diseases such as arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus to constitute the physiopathological basis of cardio- and cerebrovascular accidents.
  • 123
  • 03 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Ureteroenteric Strictures
Benign ureteroenteric anastomosis strictures (UESs) are one of many critical complications that may cause irreversible disability following robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC).
  • 101
  • 29 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Tryptophan
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid whose metabolites play key roles in diverse physiological processes.They influence immune reactions, have antioxidant properties, and can function as anabolic signals. Apart from this, they act as regulators of the circadian rhythm, and can thus modulate sleep disorders or cognitive functions. Given these diverse roles, Trp metabolism has a significant impact on the clinical outcome of critically ill patients
  • 162
  • 10 Nov 2021
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