Topic Review
Active Phosphorylated G Protein-Coupled Receptors
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest known family of signaling proteins, with over 800 members in humans, and even more in most mammalian species. They are responsible for initiating intracellular signaling that affects metabolism, growth, differentiation, and mediate sensory inputs underlying taste, sense of smell, and vision. GPCRs are targeted by about a third of clinically used drugs.
  • 283
  • 25 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Activity after Total Hip Arthroplasty
A large proportion of patients under 40 years of age who underwent Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) increased their physical activity. Eighty-six percent of the patients were highly active, with a UCLA score ≥ 7. Furthermore, the reported MCID, SCB, and PASS for mHHS were achieved by more than 80% of patients
  • 173
  • 23 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Advanced Breast Cancer
HER2 positive breast cancer represent about 20% of all breast cancer subtypes and it was considered the subtype with the worst prognosis until the discovery of therapies directed against the HER2 protein. The determination of the status of the HER2 must be very precise and well managed to identify this subtype, and there are very specific and updated guides that allow its characterization to be adjusted. 
  • 112
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Aeroterrestrial and Extremophilic Microalgae as Sources in Cosmetics
Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. 
  • 141
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
AK-I-190
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a clinical challenge in treatment because of its aggressive nature and resistance to androgen deprivation therapy. Topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitors have been suggested as a strategy to overcome these issues. We previously reported AK-I-190 as a novel topoisomerase II inhibitor. In this study, the mechanism of AK-I-190 was clarified using various types of spectroscopic and biological evaluations. AK-I-190 showed potent topoisomerase II inhibitory activity through intercalating into DNA without stabilizing the DNA-enzyme cleavage complex, resulting in significantly less DNA toxicity than etoposide, a clinically used topoisomerase II poison. AK-I-190 induced G1 arrest and effectively inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in combination with paclitaxel in an androgen receptor–negative CRPC cell line. 
  • 113
  • 20 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Allergen Immunotherapy
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the sole disease-modifying treatment for allergic rhinitis; it prevents rhinitis from progressing to asthma and lowers medication use. AIT against mites, insect venom, and certain kinds of pollen is effective. The mechanism of action of AIT is based on inducing immunological tolerance characterized by increased IL-10, TGF-β, and IgG4 levels and Treg cell counts. However, AIT requires prolonged schemes of administration and is sometimes associated with adverse reactions. Over the last decade, novel forms of AIT have been developed, focused on better allergen identification, structural modifications to preserve epitopes for B or T cells, post-traductional alteration through chemical processes, and the addition of adjuvants. These modified allergens induce clinical-immunological effects similar to those mentioned above, increasing the tolerance to other related allergens but with fewer side effects. Clinical studies have shown that molecular AIT is efficient in treating grass and birch allergies. 
  • 164
  • 17 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Allergen Immunotherapy for Asthma
For asthma, allergen immunotherapy using house dust mite (HDM) improves clinical symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness and decreases drug requirements. Furthermore, it has been suggested that allergen immunotherapy also has the following effects: (1) the effect can be maintained for more than a year even if the treatment is terminated, (2) the remission rate of childhood asthma can be increased, (3) new allergen sensitization can be suppressed, and (4) asthma development can be prevented if allergen immunotherapy was performed in the case of pollinosis. Allergen immunotherapy differs from conventional drug therapy, in particular the effect of modifying the natural course of allergic diseases and the effect of controlling complicated allergic diseases such as rhinoconjunctivitis.
  • 132
  • 09 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Allergy to Fungi in Veterinary Medicine
The fungal kingdom comprises ubiquitous forms of life with 1.5 billion years, mostly phytopathogenic and commensals for humans and animals. However, in the presence of immune disorders, fungi may cause disease by intoxicating, infecting or sensitizing with allergy. Species from the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus and Malassezia, as well as dermatophytes from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, are the most commonly implicated in veterinary medicine. 
  • 117
  • 18 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Almond Allergens
Tree nuts are considered an important food in healthy diets. However, for part of the world’s population, they are one of the most common sources of food allergens causing acute allergic reactions that can become life-threatening. They are part of the Big Eight food groups which are responsible for more than 90% of food allergy cases in the United States, and within this group, almond allergies are persistent and normally severe and life-threatening. Almond is generally consumed raw, toasted or as an integral part of other foods. Its dietary consumption is generally associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Several almond proteins have been recognized as allergens. Six of them, namely Pru du 3, Pru du 4, Pru du 5, Pru du 6, Pru du 8 and Pru du 10, have been included in the WHO-IUIS list of allergens. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in relation to the accurate characterization of the already known almond allergens or putative ones and in relation to the IgE-binding properties of these allergens to avoid misidentifications.
  • 188
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Alpha-Ketoglutarate
The generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO−) is associated with several diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, neurodegeneration, cancer, inflammation, and sepsis. Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) is a known potential highly antioxidative agent for radical oxidative species such as peroxides. 
  • 130
  • 22 Oct 2021
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