Log in/Sign up
Arts & Humanities
Biology & Life Sciences
Business & Economics
Chemistry & Materials Science
Computer Science & Mathematics
Environmental & Earth Sciences
Medicine & Pharmacology
Public Health & Healthcare
SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19
Morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are due in large part to severe cytokine storm and hypercoagulable state brought on by dysregulated host-inflammatory immune response, ultimately leading to multi-organ failure. Exacerbated oxidative stress caused by increased levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) along with decreased levels of interferon α and interferon β (IFN-α, IFN-β) are mainly believed to drive the disease process. Based on the evidence attesting to the ability of glutathione (GSH) to inhibit viral replication and decrease levels of IL-6 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) patients, as well as beneficial effects of GSH on other pulmonary diseases processes, we believe the use of liposomal GSH could be beneficial in COVID-19 patients.
25 Dec 2020
Neoplasia due to PPIs. A comment to Editorial in “Gastroenterology” .
The gastric hormone gastrin is released when the gastric content acidity is too low to efficiently kill swallowed microorganisms. Gastrin stimulates the ECL cell to produce histamine which in turn stimulates the acid producing parietal cell to secrete acid. Parallel to the stimulation of the ECL cell function, gastrin also stimulates the ECL cell proliferation. Prolonged elevation of gastrin results in ECL cell hyperplasia and further to ECL cell neoplasia of varying malignancy known from about 1980. The proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most efficient inhibitors of acid secretion and are very efficient in the treatment of acid related diseases or symptoms. Before their acceptance for clinical us, PPIs were known to induce neoplasia in rodents, but the medical community accepted that these tumors were not relevant for man. With time there have been accumulating evidence for PPI induced neoplasia also in man. However, very recently a large observation study financed by a pharmaceutical company, patients were followed for an average of 3 years without any evidence of neoplasia. The study was published in "Gastroenterology" and resulted in an "Editorial" claiming that the truth was approached. Unfortunately, the "Editorial " did not consider animal studies and recent studies in man reporting increased risk of gastric cancer in patients on PPI after eradication of Helicobacter pylori compared with those not taking PPI after eradication. Therefore the "Editorial" was flawed and I wrote a letter commenting on these errors. After 2 weeks I got a refusal claiming that my letter was without relevance and importance. I found that peculiar, and I also mean that a journal has an obligation to print letters showing faults with papers published and especially concerning a misleading "Editorial". I therefore publish my letter allowing others to evaluate the relevance and importance
25 Apr 2020
MiRNA-Based Therapies in Pulmonary Hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension involves a continuous remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature, that is similar to cancer in some aspects due to the uncontrolled proliferation of certain cells. This leads to muscularization of pulmonary vessels, development of vascular lesions, continuous vasoconstriction, and final heart failure. Current pharmacological therapies only target three molecular pathways and as a result, patients can only improve their life quality but not without suffering adverse side effects. This fatal lung disease lacks effective treatments. Therefore, there are compelling reasons to find new molecular targets and novel therapies that reverse the development of the disease. In this context, miRNA-based therapies have shown promising results that will provided in the following text while explaining the important role that had played their nanoencapsulation.
22 Apr 2021
In-silico Modeling of potential therapeutic candidates against COVID-19
The potential of computational models to identify new therapeutics and repurpose existing drugs has gained significance in recent times. The current ‘COVID-19’ pandemic caused by the new SARS CoV2 virus has affected over 200 million people and caused over 4 million deaths. The enormity and the consequences of this viral infection have fueled the research community to identify drugs or vaccines through a relatively expeditious process. The availability of high-throughput datasets has cultivated new strategies for drug development and can provide the foundation towards effective therapy options. Molecular modeling methods using structure-based or computer-aided virtual screening can potentially be employed as research guides to identify novel antiviral agents.
01 Nov 2021
Treatment of Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalomyopathy
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the nuclear TYMP gene, which encodes for thymidine phosphorylase, an enzyme required for the normal metabolism of deoxynucleosides, thymidine, and deoxyuridine. The subsequent elevated systemic concentrations of deoxynucleosides lead to increased intracellular concentrations of their corresponding triphosphates, and ultimately mitochondrial failure due to progressive accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects and mtDNA depletion. Currently, there are no treatments for MNGIE where effectiveness has been evidenced in clinical trials. A Phase 2, multi-centre, multiple dose, open label trial without a control will investigate the application of erythrocyte-encapsulated thymidine phosphorylase (EE-TP) as an enzyme replacement therapy for MNGIE. Three EE-TP dose levels are planned with patients receiving the dose level that achieves metabolic correction. The study duration is 31 months, comprising 28 days of screening, 90 days of run-in, 24 months of treatment and 90 days of post-dose follow-up. The primary objectives are to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of multiple doses of EE-TP. The secondary objectives are to assess EE-TP immunogenicity after multiple dose administrations and changes in clinical assessments, and the pharmacodynamics effect of EE-TP on clinical assessments.
28 Oct 2020
Lipsticks History, Formulations, and Production
Lipsticks are one of the most widely used cosmetic products. Social, psychological, and therapeutic benefits can be attained from using lipstick. The beauty and attractiveness of a person are enhanced as lipsticks colour the lips and protect them from the external environment.
02 Mar 2022
β-Caryophyllene and Rheumatoid Arthritis
β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist that tempers inflammation. An interaction between the CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been suggested and PPAR-γ activation exerts anti-arthritic effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the therapeutic activity of BCP and to investigate PPAR-γ involvement in a collagen antibody induced arthritis (CAIA) experimental model. CAIA was induced through intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal antibody cocktail and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 µg/100 µL/ip). CAIA animals were then randomized to orally receive either BCP (10 mg/kg/100 µL) or its vehicle (100 µL of corn oil). BCP significantly hampered the severity of the disease, reduced relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-13. BCP also decreased joint expression of matrix metalloproteinases 3 and 9. Arthritic joints showed increased COX2 and NF-kB mRNA expression and reduced expression of the PPARγ coactivator-1 alpha, PGC-1α, and PPAR-γ. These conditions were reverted following BCP treatment. Finally, BCP reduced NF-kB activation and increased PGC-1α and PPAR-γ expression in human articular chondrocytes stimulated with LPS. These effects were reverted by AM630, a CB2 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that BCP ameliorates arthritis through a cross-talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ.
03 Nov 2020
The family of NF-κB is composed of five members of proteins linking to DNA, (RelA, RelB, RelC, NFκ-B1, and NFκ-B2) that trigger a set of inflammatory downstream effectors after nuclear translocation, involved in a broad range of biological processes. Either a canonical or a non-canonical pathway can be responsible for their activation; the canonical pathway mediates inflammatory responses and leads to a rapid but transient NF-κB activation, while the non-canonical signalling is a slow, long-lasting pathway.
27 Oct 2020
The increasing prevalence and severity of pediatric food allergies (FA) demands innovative preventive and therapeutic strategies. Emerging evidence suggests a pivotal role for the gut microbiome in modulating susceptibility to FA. Studies have demonstrated that alteration of gut microbiome could precede FA, and that particular microbial community structures early in life could influence also the disease course. The identification of gut microbiome features in pediatric FA patients is driving new prevention and treatment approaches.
05 Nov 2020
Public Attitudes towards COVID-19 Vaccination
Major hindrances to getting a COVID-19 vaccine include vaccine hesitancy, skepticism, refusal, and anti-vaccine movements. Several studies have been conducted on attitudes of the public towards COVID-19 vaccines and the potential influencing factors.
01 Jun 2021
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Terms and Conditions
Browse our user manual, common Q&A, author guidelines, etc.
Rate your experience
Let us know your experience and what we could improve.
Report an error
Is something wrong? Please let us know!
Other feedback you would like to report.
Did you find what you were looking for?
Do you agree to share your valuable feedback publicly on
Yes, I agree. Encyclopedia can post it.
No, I do not agree. I would not like to post my testimonial.
Upload a screenshot
(Max file size 2MB)
Thank you for your feedback!
You input will help us improve Encyclopedia.