Topic Review
Neurobiological Links between Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury
Neurological dysfunctions commonly occurs after mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although most TBI patients recover from such dysfunction in a short period of time, some present with persistent neurological deficits. Stress is a potential factor that is involved in recovery from neurological dysfunction after TBI. However, there has been limited research on the effects and mechanisms of stress on neurological dysfunctions due to TBI. The effects of TBI and stress on neurological dysfunctions and different brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus are investigated, and the neurobiological links and mechanisms between stress and TBI are explored.
  • 109
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Bioactivities of Turmeric Oil
Curcuma longa L. (syn. Curcuma domestica), commonly known as turmeric, is a perennial herb native to Asia. After curing, drying, and milling, turmeric rhizomes are usually employed as a dye, cosmetic, and food seasoning. Most pharmacological activities of turmeric have been explained by the properties of curcumin, mainly because turmeric oil has not been as extensively studied as curcuminoids. Turmeric rhizome oil (TO) is responsible for this spice’s characteristic taste and smell.
  • 115
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Chitosan Nanoparticles in Preclinical Testing of Atherosclerosis
Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed β-(1–4)-linked 2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (deacetylated units) and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranose (acetylated units). Chitosan is derived from chitin, a highly abundant natural biopolymer with a high cationic potential. Chitin is extracted from the exoskeleton of many living organisms, including crabs, shrimps, insects, and fungi.
  • 118
  • 15 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Monoclonal Antibodies for Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
H1-antihistamines (H1AH) represent the current mainstay of treatment for chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). However, the response to H1AH is often unsatisfactory, even with increased doses. Therefore, guidelines recommend the use of omalizumab as an add-on treatment in refractory CSU. This paved the way for the investigation of targeted therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), in CSU. Omalizumab remains the best choice to treat refractory CSU. 
  • 45
  • 12 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder characterized by intense pruritus, eczematous lesions, and relapsing course. It presents with great clinical heterogeneity, while underlying pathogenetic mechanisms involve a complex interplay between a dysfunctional skin barrier, immune dysregulation, microbiome dysbiosis, genetic and environmental factors. All these interactions are shaping the landscape of AD endotypes and phenotypes. In the “era of allergy epidemic”, the role of food allergy (FA) in the prevention and management of AD is a recently explored area.
  • 139
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Biomarkers of Allergic Asthma
Allergic asthma is the most common asthma phenotype and is characterized by IgE sensitization to airborne allergens and subsequent typical asthmatic symptoms after exposure. A form of type 2 (T2) airway inflammation underlies allergic asthma. It usually arises in childhood and is accompanied by multimorbidity presenting with the occurrence of other atopic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Biomarkers identifying patients with allergic asthma include total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and serum eosinophil counts. 
  • 91
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Probiotics in Children with Asthma
A type-2 immune response usually sustains wheezing and asthma in children. In addition, dysbiosis of digestive and respiratory tracts is detectable in patients with wheezing and asthma. Probiotics may rebalance immune response, repair dysbiosis, and mitigate airway inflammation. As a result, probiotics may prevent asthma and wheezing relapse. There is evidence that some probiotic strains may improve asthma outcomes in children.
  • 104
  • 09 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Heme Oxygenase-1 and Iron Metabolism Crosstalk in Macrophages
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme, releasing equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin (BV), and iron. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of HO-1 activity are conferred in part by the release of CO and BV and are extensively characterized. However, iron constitutes an important product of HO-1 activity involved in the regulation of several cellular biological processes. The macrophage-mediated recycling of heme molecules, in particular those contained in hemoglobin, constitutes the major mechanism through which living organisms acquire iron. This process is finely regulated by the activities of HO-1 and of the iron exporter protein ferroportin. The expression of both proteins can be induced or suppressed in response to pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli in macrophages from different tissues, which alters the intracellular iron concentrations of these cells. 
  • 89
  • 28 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Inflammatory Cells, Angiogenesis, and Lymphangiogenesis
The inflammation seen in the lungs of COPD patients involves both innate (macrophages, neutrophils, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, natural killer cells (NK cells), γδ T cells, ILCs, and dendritic cells (DCs)) and adaptive immunity (B and T lymphocytes). There is also evidence that structural cells, including BECs and alveolar epithelial cells, ECs, fibroblasts, and myofibroblasts, can contribute to inflammatory mechanisms and angiogenesis in COPD.
  • 94
  • 07 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Induced by COVID-19 Vaccines
As the world deals with the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination remains vital to successfully end this crisis. However, COVID-19-vaccine-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions presenting with potentially life-threatening systemic anaphylactic reactions are one of the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Studies have suggested that different mechanisms, including IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mast cell activation, may be involved in immediate hypersensitivity. The main culprits triggering hypersensitivity reactions have been suggested to be the excipients of vaccines, including polyethylene glycol and polysorbate 80. Patients with a history of allergic reactions to drugs, foods, or other vaccines may have an increased risk of hypersensitivity reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Various strategies have been suggested to prevent hypersensitivity reactions, including performing skin tests or in vitro tests before vaccination, administering different vaccines for the primary and following boosters, changing the fractionated doses, or pretreating the anti-IgE antibody.
  • 153
  • 01 Jun 2022
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