Topic Review
Public Attitudes towards COVID-19 Vaccination
Major hindrances to getting a COVID-19 vaccine include vaccine hesitancy, skepticism, refusal, and anti-vaccine movements. Several studies have been conducted on attitudes of the public towards COVID-19 vaccines and the potential influencing factors.
  • 460
  • 01 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Active Phosphorylated G Protein-Coupled Receptors
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest known family of signaling proteins, with over 800 members in humans, and even more in most mammalian species. They are responsible for initiating intracellular signaling that affects metabolism, growth, differentiation, and mediate sensory inputs underlying taste, sense of smell, and vision. GPCRs are targeted by about a third of clinically used drugs.
  • 394
  • 25 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Virucidal Activity of Different Mouthwashes
This entry describes the effect of mouthwash on the stability of the viral envelope and its ability to reduce the viral load.
  • 380
  • 31 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Asthma and Lung Cancer
A large gap still exists in our knowledge of the effects of dietary supplements on lung cancer risk/mortality in asthmatic smokers and nonsmokers. There is a lack of reliable studies for detecting such an effect says a researcher in the journal Nutrients [1]. The researcher undertook a comprehensive review of studies on the topic, and is now calling for trials and studies of these supplements to detect their benefits and harms. The best way to reduce lung cancer risk is to get those at greatest risk of lung cancer (active and passive smokers, particularly those with asthma) to stop smoking or reduce exposure to tobacco smoke. In industrial societies, airborne environmental pollutants are also risk factors. [1] Alsharairi, N. The effects of dietary supplements on Asthma and Lung Cancer risk in smokers and non-smokers: A review of the literature. Nutrients, 2019, 11, 725.
  • 370
  • 03 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Sex, Asthma and Exercise
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common complication of athletes and individuals who exercise regularly. It is estimated that about 90% of patients with underlying asthma (a sexually dimorphic disease) experience EIB; however, sex differences in EIB have not been studied extensively. With the goal of better understanding the prevalence of EIB in males and females, and because atopy has been reported to occur at higher rates in athletes, in this study, we investigated sex differences in EIB and atopy in athletes. A systematic literature review identified 60 studies evaluating EIB and/or atopy in post-pubertal adult athletes (n = 7501). Collectively, these studies reported: (1) a 23% prevalence of EIB in athletes; (2) a higher prevalence of atopy in male vs. female athletes; (3) a higher prevalence of atopy in athletes with EIB; (4) a significantly higher rate of atopic EIB in male vs. female athletes. Our analysis indicates that the physiological changes that occur during exercise may differentially affect male and female athletes, and suggest an interaction between male sex, exercise, and atopic status in the course of EIB. Understanding these sex differences is important to provide personalized management plans to athletes with underlying asthma and/or atopy.
  • 369
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
L-Citrulline
L-citrulline (CIT) is an organic compound and a non-essential amino acid, and the body can synthesize it endogenously. Diet is a poor source of CIT and endogenous synthesis the its main source in the body. Watermelon is the principal source of that amino acid in the diet; the name citrulline comes from Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), the scientific name for watermelon. CIT concentration in watermelon depends on the type of cultivir and usually ranges between 0.7 and 3.6 g/kg of fresh weight. CIT is present in both the flesh and in the ring.
  • 368
  • 06 May 2021
Topic Review
TLR4 and alpha-MSH in allergy
Ocular allergic diseases are frequently seen in ophthalmological clinical practice. Immunological damage is mediated by a local Th2 inflammatory microenvironment, accompanied by changes in circulating cell subsets, with more effector cells and fewer T regulatory cells (Tregs). This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and a-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in the immune regulation associated with perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC). We performed an Ag-specific stimulation during 72 h of culturing with or without LPS or α-MSH in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), analyzing the cell subsets and cytokines induced by the stimuli. We also determined α-MSH in tear samples from healthy donors (HD) or PAC patients. Our findings demonstrate an immunological dysregulation characterized by an increased frequency of CD4+TLR4+ in the PBMC of patients with PAC, compared to HD. Most of these CD4+TLR4+ cells were also CD25+, and when α-MSH was added to the culture, the percentage of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ increased significantly, while the percentage of CD69+ cells and cytokines IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly decreased. In tears, we found an increased concentration of α-MSH in PAC patients, compared with HD. These findings indicate a novel mechanism involved in controlling ocular allergic diseases, in which α-MSH diminishes the concentration of IL-6 and IL-4, restoring the frequency of Tregs and down-regulating CD4 activation. Moreover, we demonstrate the involvement of CD4+TLR4+ cells, as an effector cell subset, in ocular allergy.
  • 357
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a predominant malignancy worldwide, being the fourth most common cause of mortality and morbidity. The CRC incidence in adolescents, young adults, and adult populations is increasing every year. In the pathogenesis of CRC, various factors are involved including diet, sedentary life, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, gut microbiota, diabetes, and genetic mutations. The CRC tumor microenvironment (TME) involves the complex cooperation between tumoral cells with stroma, immune, and endothelial cells. 
  • 338
  • 19 Oct 2021
Topic Review
BioFilms
Biofilms are aggregates formed as a protective survival state by microorganisms to adapt to the environment and can be resistant to antimicrobial agents and host immune responses due to chemical or physical diffusion barriers, modified nutrient environments, suppression of the growth rate within biofilms, and the genetic adaptation of cells within biofilms. With the widespread use of medical devices, medical device-associated biofilms continue to pose a serious threat to human health, and these biofilms have become the most important source of nosocomial infections. However, traditional antimicrobial agents cannot completely eliminate medical device-associated biofilms. New strategies for the treatment of these biofilms and targeting biofilm infections are urgently required. Several novel approaches have been developed and identified as effective and promising treatments.
  • 327
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Almond Allergens
Tree nuts are considered an important food in healthy diets. However, for part of the world’s population, they are one of the most common sources of food allergens causing acute allergic reactions that can become life-threatening. They are part of the Big Eight food groups which are responsible for more than 90% of food allergy cases in the United States, and within this group, almond allergies are persistent and normally severe and life-threatening. Almond is generally consumed raw, toasted or as an integral part of other foods. Its dietary consumption is generally associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Several almond proteins have been recognized as allergens. Six of them, namely Pru du 3, Pru du 4, Pru du 5, Pru du 6, Pru du 8 and Pru du 10, have been included in the WHO-IUIS list of allergens. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in relation to the accurate characterization of the already known almond allergens or putative ones and in relation to the IgE-binding properties of these allergens to avoid misidentifications.
  • 317
  • 30 Sep 2021
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