Topic Review
Helicobacter pylori infection, pathogenicity, and therapeutic advances
A primer on Helicobacter pylori virulence factors, pathogenicity, gastric conditions that are caused by infection, and treatment modalities. This entry is adapted from the peer-reviewed paper 10.3390/pathogens13050392
  • 535
  • 17 May 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Displacement Micropump with Check Valves for Diabetes Care—The Challenge of Pumping Insulin at Negative Pressure
The displacement micropump with passive check valves is an attractive solution for precise insulin infusion in patients with type I diabetes. Unlike most insulin pumps that push insulin from a cartridge using a piston, a displacement micropump will first pull insulin from the reservoir before infusing it into the patient. This dual sequence introduces new challenges in terms of insulin stability, notably if the reservoir is not pressurized. After an introduction to displacement micropumps and a brief review of the insulin degradation mechanism, micropump design rules are discussed in light of microfluidic theory.
  • 716
  • 14 May 2024
Topic Review
Antiviral Agents from Plant
Antiviral Agents from Plant refers to antiviral drugs derived from plants and plant foods. 
  • 251
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review
Redefining Vaccine Effectiveness through Lessons from SARS-CoV-2
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have played a pivotal role in reducing the risk of developing severe illness from COVID-19, thus helping end the COVID-19 global public health emergency.  Intriguingly, as SARS-CoV-2 variants emerged, individuals who were fully vaccinated did get infected in high numbers, and viral loads in vaccinated individuals were as high as those in the unvaccinated.  However, vaccines undoubtedly offered protection against severe illness even without conferring immunity in the classical sense.  The lessons learned from anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are a call to the medical community to revisit and redefine the concept of vaccine effectiveness.  This endeavor is likely to increase increase vaccine confidence, and thus bolster global health education efforts and preventive care. 
  • 320
  • 07 May 2024
Topic Review
Markov Modeling of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
This project focuses on utilizing mathematical Markov chain modeling as a stochastic process to analyze the stages of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). ARDS, characterized by a spectrum of severity ranging from floors to death, presents a complex clinical challenge. By employing Markov chain modeling, we aim to provide a structured framework for understanding the dynamic progression of ARDS. Our approach involves constructing a Markov chain that represents the transition of patients through various stages of ARDS, including floors, mild, moderate, severe, and ultimately death. Each stage is associated with specific clinical characteristics and outcomes, forming the basis of our modeling framework. In addition to describing the natural progression of ARDS, our project involves reviewing current clinical guidelines for managing the condition. We propose to examine the impact of each guideline on patient outcomes and the transition through different ARDS stages. By systematically analyzing the effects of various interventions and treatment strategies, we aim to provide insights into optimizing patient care and improving outcomes in ARDS management. Ultimately, this project serves as a comprehensive exploration of ARDS progression, providing healthcare professionals with a valuable framework for thinking about the condition. By integrating mathematical modeling with clinical guidelines, we seek to enhance our understanding of ARDS and contribute to more effective treatment approaches tailored to individual patient needs.
  • 264
  • 06 May 2024
Topic Review
Venous Thromboembolisms (VTEs) in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA)
The entry provides a comprehensive overview of Venous Thromboembolisms (VTEs) in Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), a significant orthopedic procedure. It begins by highlighting the persistent threat of VTEs despite improvements in surgical techniques and preventive measures. The prevalence and incidence of VTEs are discussed, showcasing a notable decrease over the years. The clinical significance of VTEs, including their impact on patient outcomes and healthcare costs, is emphasized, underscoring the need for effective management strategies. Various risk factors contributing to VTE development post-TKA are explored, including demographic factors, cardiopulmonary status, preoperative mobilization status, and malignancy. The section on prevention outlines existing guidelines and challenges, with a focus on the efficacy and safety of aspirin as a prophylactic agent. Finally, the conclusion emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive approach to address VTEs in TKA, encompassing evidence-based guidelines, personalized patient care, and strategies to enhance adherence to preventive measures.
  • 238
  • 30 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Molecular Mechanisms of Phenols to Prevent Neurodegeneration
Aging causes changes in brain tissue homeostasis, thus contributing to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds are of particular interest for neurodegenerative diseases whose psychopathological mechanisms strongly rely on oxidative stress at the brain level. Moreover, phenolic compounds display other advantages such as the permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and the interesting molecular mechanisms.
  • 248
  • 30 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Neuroanatomical Correlates of Anxiety Disorders
Developing an anxiety disorder can be the source of further cognitive, behavioral, and emotional struggles, impacting the quality of life of people experiencing such disorders and leading to a burden on health systems. Increased knowledge of the neurobiological events leading to the development of such disorders can be crucial for diagnostic procedures, as well as the selection and adaptation of therapeutic and preventive measures. Despite recent advances in this field, research is still at the initial steps when it comes to understanding the specific neurofunctional processes guiding these changes in the brains of people with an anxiety disorder. 
  • 208
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Gut and Intratumoral Microbiomes in Tumor Metastasis
Cancer cell dissemination involves invasion, migration, resistance to stressors in the circulation, extravasation, colonization, and other functions responsible for macroscopic metastases. By enhancing invasiveness, motility, and intravasation, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process promotes the generation of circulating tumor cells and their collective migration. Preclinical and clinical studies have documented intensive crosstalk between the gut microbiome, host organism, and immune system. According to the findings, polymorphic microbes might play diverse roles in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and therapy response. Microbial imbalances and changes in the levels of bacterial metabolites and toxins promote cancer progression via EMT and angiogenesis. In contrast, a favorable microbial composition, together with microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can attenuate the processes of tumor initiation, disease progression, and the formation of distant metastases.
  • 628
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a complex challenge with diverse underlying pathological mechanisms and etiologies. The clinical applications of AKI biomarkers are becoming extensive and serving as relevant tools in distinguishing acute tubular necrosis from other acute renal conditions. Also, these biomarkers can offer significant insights into the risk of progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in the context of kidney transplantation.
  • 574
  • 15 Apr 2024
  • Page
  • of
  • 1349
Video Production Service