Topic Review
Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics and Diagnosis of Monkeypox
Monkeypox is a disease caused by Orthopoxvirus, which also includes the smallpox virus. Several endemics have been reported on the African continent, typically in the western and central regions. However, since 13 May 2022, there have been several cases reported from different member states; the number of confirmed cases in 1 month exceeded the total number of cases reported outside the African continent since the first case in 1970. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) consider monkeypox as an important disease for global public health.
  • 10
  • 23 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Mechanisms of Pain Modulation
A review of the pathophysiology of pain and its treatment, from a surgical point of view has been published (Sola RG, Pulido P. Neurosurgical Traatment of Pain. Brain Sci. 2022, 12(11), 1584; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12111584) There are pain syndromes of difficult medical control.In these cases, surgical treatment may be an excellent alternative. The bases on which the different surgical approaches are based are described. The attached table shows a very schematic view of the neurosurgical treatment of pain.      
  • 55
  • 22 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Deep Learning in Liver Transplantation
Liver transplantation outcomes have improved in recent years. Looking for the best Donor-Recipient matching (D-R matching) as always been a challenge for the liver transplantation surgeons. Most of the currently proposed scores based on conventional biostatistics are not good classifiers of a problem that is considered “unbalanced.” In last years, the implementation of artificial intelligence in medicine has experienced exponential growth. Deep learning, a branch of artificial intelligence with capability to handle a large number of variables with speed and multi-objective analysis. Artificial neural networks and random forests are the most widely used deep-learning classifiers in this field. Both classifiers have been able to show a high predictive ability in the graft survival of a D-R pair compared to traditional classifiers. There are even authors that have successfully created a matching model based on one of them. However, they are not without limitations. The question now is: Will these limitations be overcome in the coming years?
  • 24
  • 22 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Mitochondrial Disorders
Mitochondrial disorders represent a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders with variations in severity and clinical outcomes, mostly characterized by respiratory chain dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial function. More specifically, mutations in the human SCO2 gene, encoding the mitochondrial inner membrane Sco2 cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly protein, have been implicated in the mitochondrial disorder fatal infantile cardioencephalomyopathy with COX deficiency.     
  • 55
  • 21 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Imaging Techniques in Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity
Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is a disorder caused by repetitive overloading, which leads to progressive posterior tibialis tendon (PTT) insufficiency. It mainly affects middle-aged women and occurs with foot pain, malalignment, and loss of function. After clinical examination, imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of this pathology. Imaging allows confirmation of the diagnosis, monitoring of the disorder, outcome assessment and complication identification. 
  • 26
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Antipsychotic Development
While pharmacotherapy of depression appears to have moved from the monoamine hypothesis to more fertile grounds of glutamatergic and GABAergic mechanisms, it has been challenging to shift the antipsychotic paradigm beyond the dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Efforts to develop non-dopaminergic antipsychotic medications (APMs) have produced negative results; thus, there has been no effective APM without dopamine involvement during 70 years of antipsychotic drug development.
  • 17
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Pathology in DR
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) as a microangiopathy is the most common complication in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and remains the leading cause of blindness among adult population. 
  • 14
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Inflammation and Heart Failure
Inflammation is defined as the response of the immune system to a variety of stimuli that might be infectious or tissue harmful. Regardless of the initial insult, there is a series of programmed sequelae depending on the ability of the immune system to eliminate the ‘enemy’ and restore the tissues’ normal structure and function. The inflammatory process can be divided, without clearly defined and therefore overlapping borders, into three sequential phases, including the acute phase, the intermediate and the restore/repair phase. The pivotal role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of heart-failure (HF) development and progression has long been recognized. High blood levels of pro-inflammatory and inflammatory markers are present and associated with adverse outcomes in patients with HF. 
  • 16
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Pathophysiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses a group of heterogeneous diseases that entail chronic, relapsing gastrointestinal tract inflammation of inexactly known etiology and pathogenesis. IBD is clinically classified as Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) based on symptoms, disease location, and histopathological characteristics.
  • 26
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Biomarkers for Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Heart Disease
Cardiovascular disease is most frequently caused by the development and progression of atherosclerosis. When coronary arteries are afflicted, and the stenoses caused by atherosclerotic plaques are severe enough, the metabolic supply-and-offer balance is disturbed, leading to myocardial ischemia. If atherosclerotic plaques become unstable and local thrombosis develops, a myocardial infarction occurs. Sometimes, myocardial ischemia and infarction may result in significant and irreversible heart failure. To prevent severe complications, such as acute coronary syndromes and ischemia-related heart failure, extensive efforts have been made for developing biomarkers that would help identify patients at increased risk for cardiovascular events.
  • 17
  • 20 Jan 2023
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