Topic Review
Bioactive Molecules in Micro and Macroalgae
Many algae synthesize compounds that have exceptional properties of nutraceutical, pharmacological, and biomedical interest. Pigments, fatty acids, phenols, and polysaccharides are among the main compounds investigated so far. Polysaccharides are the most exploited compounds, widely used in pharmaceutical, food, and chemical industries, which are at present entering into more advanced applications by gaining importance, from a therapeutic point of view, as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory agents. Establishing algae as an alternative supplement would complement the sustainable and environmental requirements in the framework of human health and well-being. 
  • 24
  • 05 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Overview of Fucoidan
The marine macroalgae produce a collection of bioactive polysaccharides, of which the sulfated heteropolysaccharide fucoidan produced by brown algae of the class Phaeophyceae has received worldwide attention because of its particular biological actions that confer nutritional and health benefits to humans and animals. The biological actions of fucoidan are determined by their structure and chemical composition, which are largely influenced by the geographical location, harvest season, extraction process, etc. 
  • 15
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Aegerolysins
Aegerolysins are remarkable proteins. They are distributed over the tree of life, being relatively widespread in fungi and bacteria, but also present in some insects, plants, protozoa, and viruses. Their function, in particular, is intriguing. Aegerolysin proteins are involved in various interactions by recognizing a molecular receptor in the target organism. Despite their abundance in cells of certain developmental stages and their presence in secretomes, only a few aegerolysins have been studied in detail. Formation of pores with various larger non-aegerolysin-like protein partners is one of the possible responses of the aegerolysin-producing organism in competitive exclusion of other organisms from the ecological niche.
  • 14
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
C-to-U RNA Editing
The restoration of genetic code by editing mutated genes is a potential method for the treatment of genetic diseases/disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by the point mutations of thymine (T) to cytidine (C) or guanosine (G) to adenine (A), for which gene editing (editing of mutated genes) is a promising therapeutic technique. In C-to-Uridine (U) RNA editing, it converts the base C-to-U in RNA molecules and leads to nonsynonymous changes when occurring in coding regions; for G-to-A mutations, A-to-I editing occurs. Editing of C-to-U is not as physiologically common as that of A-to-I editing.
  • 16
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
History of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. From its inception, biotechnology has maintained a close relationship with society. Although now most often associated with the development of drugs, historically biotechnology has been principally associated with food, addressing such issues as malnutrition and famine. The history of biotechnology begins with zymotechnology, which commenced with a focus on brewing techniques for beer. By World War I, however, zymotechnology would expand to tackle larger industrial issues, and the potential of industrial fermentation gave rise to biotechnology. However, both the single-cell protein and gasohol projects failed to progress due to varying issues including public resistance, a changing economic scene, and shifts in political power. Yet the formation of a new field, genetic engineering, would soon bring biotechnology to the forefront of science in society, and the intimate relationship between the scientific community, the public, and the government would ensue. These debates gained exposure in 1975 at the Asilomar Conference, where Joshua Lederberg was the most outspoken supporter for this emerging field in biotechnology. By as early as 1978, with the development of synthetic human insulin, Lederberg's claims would prove valid, and the biotechnology industry grew rapidly. Each new scientific advance became a media event designed to capture public support, and by the 1980s, biotechnology grew into a promising real industry. In 1988, only five proteins from genetically engineered cells had been approved as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but this number would skyrocket to over 125 by the end of the 1990s. The field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today's society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research, cloning, and genetically modified food. While it seems only natural nowadays to link pharmaceutical drugs as solutions to health and societal problems, this relationship of biotechnology serving social needs began centuries ago.
  • 12
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Characteristics of Skin Microbiome in Selected Dermatological Conditions
The skin is the largest and outermost organ of the human body. The microbial diversity of the skin can be influenced by several variable factors such as physiological state, lifestyle, and geographical locations. There are increased interest in research aiming at an improved understanding of the relationship between the human microbiota and several diseases. Albeit understudied, interesting correlations between the skin microbiota and several dermatological conditions have been observed. Studies have shown that a decrease or increase in the abundance of certain microbial communities can be implicated in several dermatological pathologies.
  • 18
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Role of OM in Gram-Negative MDR Bacteria
The cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria is made of an outer membrane (OM), peptidoglycan cell wall (CW), and inner membrane (IM). lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a peculiar glycolipid unique to Gram-negative bacteria is the hallmark of OM that consists of a glucosamine-based lipid (lipid A) attached to a core oligosaccharide followed by a distal polysaccharide chain. This incredible variability in LPS that is attained through unique organization and adaptability to multiple secondary covalent modifications plays a key role in the MDR of Gram-negative bacteria.
  • 27
  • 29 Sep 2022
Biography
Santosh Kumar Sahu
Behuria, H. G., Biswal, B. K. & Sahu, S. K. (2020) Electroformation of liposomes and phytosomes using copper electrode, Journal of Liposome Research, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/08982104.2020.1800729, Print ISSN: 0898-2104 Online ISSN: 1532-2394 Behuria, H. G. and Sahu, S.K., An anti-microbial terpenoid fraction from Gymnema sylvestre induces flip-flop of fluorescent-phospholipid analogs
  • 19
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Fungi, P-Solubilization, and Plant Nutrition
The application of plant beneficial microorganisms is widely accepted as an efficient alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. It was shown that annually, mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria are responsible for 5 to 80% of all nitrogen, and up to 75% of P plant acquisition.
  • 18
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Combination Strategies of Different Antimicrobials
Despite the discovery and development of an array of antimicrobial agents, multidrug resistance poses a major threat to public health and progressively increases mortality. The use of antimicrobial agents in combination can produce synergistic effects if each drug invades a different target or signaling pathway with a different mechanism of action. Therefore, drug combinations can achieve a higher probability and selectivity of therapeutic responses than single drugs.
  • 21
  • 28 Sep 2022
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