Topic Review
Micro-Algal Biotechnology
Environment is everything including both the living and non living things in the earth’s ecosystem. Today the pollution of the environment is a serious concern facing humanity and other life forms in the world. The environment is daily polluted by natural and anthropogenic (man-mad) factors due to inattention and improper use of the existing science and technology. Several physicochemical methods are used for protection of the pollution in the environment but these techniques have its own advantage and disadvantage. In recent years, using biological methods specially, microalgae for environmental pollution protection is the best one, because it is suitable, produce less and or non toxic products, cost effective and eco-friendly methods to our environment. Microalgae are the important groups of living organisms used for biotechnological utilizations such as for environmental protection, Agricultural usage, biofule production, pharmaceutical production etc. without any environmental factor. This review focuses on the environmental applications of micro-algal biotechnology for treatment of wastewater nutrients, removal of heavy metals from the natural water, mitigation of CO2, removal of dyes and dyestuffs from their effluents and their agricultural usage without any factor in the natural environment.
  • 2015
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Capillary-Driven Flow Microfluidics
Point-of-care (POC) or near-patient testing allows clinicians to accurately achieve real-time diagnostic results performed at or near to the patient site. The outlook of POC devices is to provide quicker analyses that can lead to well-informed clinical decisions and hence improve the health of patients at the point-of-need. Microfluidics plays an important role in the development of POC devices. However, requirements of handling expertise, pumping systems and complex fluidic controls make the technology unaffordable to the current healthcare systems in the world. In recent years, capillary-driven flow microfluidics has emerged as an attractive microfluidic-based technology to overcome these limitations by offering robust, cost-effective and simple-to-operate devices. The internal wall of the microchannels can be pre-coated with reagents, and by merely dipping the device into the patient sample, the sample can be loaded into the microchannel driven by capillary forces and can be detected via handheld or smartphone-based detectors. The capabilities of capillary-driven flow devices have not been fully exploited in developing POC diagnostics, especially for antimicrobial resistance studies in clinical settings. The purpose of this review is to open up this field of microfluidics to the ever-expanding microfluidic-based scientific community.
  • 1681
  • 24 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Biocoagulant/bioflocculant application for drinking water
The utilization of metal-based conventional coagulants/flocculants to remove suspended solids from drinking water and wastewater is currently leading to new concerns. Alarming issues related to the prolonged effects on human health and further pollution to aquatic environments from the generated nonbiodegradable sludge are becoming trending topics. The utilization of biocoagulants/bioflocculants does not produce chemical residue in the effluent and creates nonharmful, biodegradable sludge.
  • 1664
  • 25 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Development of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies
We provide an overview of the challenges and advancements in the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antibody products.
  • 1534
  • 21 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Combinatorial Peptide Library
Completely randomizing even relatively short peptides would require a library size surpassing the capacities of most platforms. Sampling the complete mutational space for peptides exceeding 8–9 residues is therefore practically impossible, and gene diversification strategies only allow for generation and subsequent interrogation of a limited subset of the entire theoretical peptide population. Directed evolution of peptides therefore strives to ascend towards peak activity through mutational steps, accumulating beneficial mutational over several generations, resulting in improved phenotype. We briefly discuss combinatorial library platforms and take an in-depth look at diversification techniques for random and focused mutagenesis. 
  • 1485
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Wearable Stretch Sensors
Wearable sensors are beneficial for continuous health monitoring, movement analysis, rehabilitation, evaluation of human performance. Wearable stretch sensors are increasingly being used for human movement monitoring. The content presented provides a review of wearable stretch sensors as well the design, development and validation of a wearable soft-robotic-stretch sensors. 
  • 1477
  • 25 Feb 2021
Topic Review
ECG Monitoring Systems
Health monitoring and its related technologies is an attractive research area. The electrocardiogram (ECG) has always been a popular measurement scheme to assess and diagnose cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The number of ECG monitoring systems in the literature is expanding exponentially. Hence, it is very hard for researchers and healthcare experts to choose, compare, and evaluate systems that serve their needs and fulfill the monitoring requirements. This accentuates the need for a verified reference guiding the design, classification, and analysis of ECG monitoring systems, serving both researchers and professionals in the field. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive, expert-verified taxonomy of ECG monitoring systems and conduct an extensive, systematic review of the literature. This provides evidence-based support for critically understanding ECG monitoring systems’ components, contexts, features, and challenges. Hence, a generic architectural model for ECG monitoring systems is proposed, an extensive analysis of ECG monitoring systems’ value chain is conducted, and a thorough review of the relevant literature, classified against the experts’ taxonomy, is presented, highlighting challenges and current trends. Finally, we identify key challenges and emphasize the importance of smart monitoring systems that leverage new technologies, including deep learning, artificial intelligence (AI), Big Data and Internet of Things (IoT), to provide efficient, cost-aware, and fully connected monitoring systems.
  • 1431
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Detection of Beta-Glucan
This entry provides a comprehensive review of the current literature about biological properties and available methods for the detection of beta-glucans. It shares the experience of the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory with the detection of beta-glucans in nanotechnology-based drug products. This entry summarizes and discusses five different approaches currently applied for the data interpretation of beta-glucan tests with respect to the acceptability (or lack thereof) of the beta-glucan levels in pharmaceutical products.
  • 1340
  • 03 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Microneedles
Microneedles (MNs) represent micron-sized structures, consisting of a variety of materials, that have been recently emerged as physical enhances for a painless and safe transdermal delivery of drugs through the skin.
  • 1340
  • 02 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Electrochemical Biosensors for Hormone Detection
Hormones are secreted primarily by glands or specific cells, circulate in the bloodstream, and specialize in targeting cells. The electrochemical biosensing of hormones has emerged for treating human diseases and performing clinical diagnosis.
  • 1336
  • 13 Jan 2021
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