Topic Review
Palm Kernel Cake for Poultry
Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product of oil extracted from palm nuts through expeller press or solvent extraction procedures is one of the highest quantities of locally available and potentially inexpensive agricultural products. PKC provides approximately 14–18% of crude protein (CP), 12–20% crude fiber (CF), 3–9% ether extract (EE), and different amounts of various minerals that feasible to be used as a partial substitute of soybean meal (SBM) and corn in poultry nutrition. Poultry’s digestibility is reported to be compromised due to the indigestion of the high fiber content, making PKC potentially low for poultry feeding. Nevertheless, solid-state fermentation (SSF) can be applied to improve the nutritional quality of PKC by improving the CP and reducing CF content. PKC also contains β-mannan polysaccharide, which works as a prebiotic.
  • 2961
  • 07 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Calcium Propionate in Dairy Cows
Calcium propionate is a safe and reliable food and feed additive. It can be metabolized and absorbed by humans and animals as a precursor for glucose synthesis. In addition, calcium propionate provides essential calcium to mammals. In the perinatal period of dairy cows, many cows cannot adjust to the tremendous metabolic, endocrine, and physiological changes, resulting in ketosis and fatty liver due to a negative energy balance (NEB) or milk fever induced by hypocalcemia. On hot weather days, cow feed (TMR or silage) is susceptible to mildew, which produces mycotoxins. These two issues are closely related to dairy health and performance. Propionic acid is the primary gluconeogenic precursor in dairy cows and one of the safest mold inhibitors. Therefore, calcium propionate, which can be hydrolyzed into propionic acid and Ca2+ in the rumen, may be a good feed additive for alleviating NEB and milk fever in the perinatal period of dairy cows. It can also be used to inhibit TMR or silage deterioration in hot weather and regulate rumen development in calves. This paper reviews the application of calcium propionate in dairy cows.
  • 1810
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Mosquitoes of Etiological Concern in Kenya
Kenya is among the most affected tropical countries with pathogen transmitting Culicidae vectors. For decades, insect vectors have contributed to the emergence and distribution of viral and parasitic pathogens. Outbreaks and diseases have a great impact on a country’s economy, as resources that would otherwise be used for developmental projects are redirected to curb hospitalization cases and manage outbreaks. Infected invasive mosquito species have been shown to increasingly cross both local and global boarders due to the presence of increased environmental changes, trade, and tourism. In Kenya, there have been several mosquito-borne disease outbreaks such as the recent outbreaks along the coast of Kenya, involving chikungunya and dengue. This certainly calls for the implementation of strategies aimed at strengthening integrated vector management programs. Here we look at mosquitoes of public health concern in Kenya, while highlighting the pathogens they have been linked with over the years and across various regions. 
  • 1600
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Sheep Meat Processed Products
A concise review of the origin and type of the most important sheep and goat processed meat products produced in different countries and world regions is made. The manuscript also summarizes the most recent studies on sheep and goat processed meats on the physicochemical characterizations, sensory quality, microbiological quality and safety. Some conclusions and future trends in production, processing and commercial potentiality for sheep and goat processed meat products are discussed.
  • 1570
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Pet Husbandry
Pet husbandry is the practices applied in day-to-day care of animal companions, which can greatly impact animal welfare. Pet husbandry include: (1) origin of pets; (2) number and type of pets in the household; (3) diet type and feeding practices; (4) living environment and daily activities; (5) preventive treatment for parasites and vaccination; (6) regular veterinary check-ups and access to health care; and (7) compliance with legal requirements and identification.
  • 1487
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Moringa as Natural Feed Supplement
Application of natural herbs with a view to enhancing production performance and health status has created an important demand in poultry production. With the increasing concerns on this issue, greater attention paid to alternatives to antibiotics for organic meat and egg production has led to a great demand. This study was conducted with view to assessing the possible role of M. oleifera as a natural feed supplement in poultry ration. Various scientific findings and published research articles were considered concerning issues including the study background, objectives, major findings, and conclusions of the review. M oleifera is known as a miracle tree because of its wealthy resource of various nutrients with high biological values. M. oleifera has been used as a growth promoter, immune enhancer, antioxidant, and has a hypo-cholesterol e ect on chickens. It has both nutritional and therapeutic values. However, there is still much confusion in past published articles involving the major roles of M. oleifera in production performance and health status of chickens. Taking this into account, the present study highlights an outline of the experimental uses of M. oleifera on growth performance, egg production performance, egg quality, and health status in broilers and laying hens justified with the past findings to the present. The knowledge gaps from the past studies are considered, and the feasibility of M. oleifera in poultry ration is suggested. The findings have motivated further study on M. oleifera to find out the most active ingredients and their optimal doses in both broiler and laying hen rations. Finally, the present study highlights that supplementation of M. oleifera may play a role in the immunity, sound health, and production performance in poultry.
  • 1225
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Apis mellifera
The current knowledge about viruses of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera.
  • 1107
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM)
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is an important component of milk lipids that showed several biological properties (such as anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticholesterolemic activities). In this review we analyse the latest results obtained from comparative proteomic studies regarding the variations and the similarities of MFGM proteome across species and lactation stages. Infant formula supplementation with MFGM represents an interesting opportunity to implement the bioactive properties exerted by MFGM, in order to narrow the gap between human breast milk and infant formula. 
  • 976
  • 27 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Fatty Liver Disease in Dairy Cows
Frequently occurring fatty liver disease in dairy cows during the perinatal period, a typical type of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), results in worldwide high culling rates of dairy cows (averagely about 25%) after calving. This has been developing into a critical industrial problem throughout the world, because the metabolic disease severely affects the welfare and economic value of dairy cows. Understanding the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of fatty liver disease will further enhance our understanding of fatty liver disease in human beings and animals, developing safer and effective therapeutics to prevent and/or treat the disease, also providing essential clues in breeding improvement of fatty liver disease-resistant dairy cattle, eventually contributing to sustainable development of dairy industry.
  • 975
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Fish Pathology
One of the main constraints in aquaculture production is farmed fish vulnerability to diseases due to husbandry practices or external factors like pollution, climate changes, or even the alterations in the dynamic of product transactions in this industry. It is though important to better understand and characterize the intervenients in the process of a disease outbreak as these lead to huge economical losses in aquaculture industries. High-throughput technologies like proteomics can be an important characterization tool especially in pathogen identification and the virulence mechanisms related to host-pathogen interactions on disease research and diagnostics that will help to control, prevent, and treat diseases in farmed fish. Proteomics' important role is also maximized by its holistic approach to understanding pathogenesis processes and fish responses to external factors like stress or temperature making it one of the most promising tools for fish pathology research.
  • 961
  • 28 Jan 2021
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