Topic Review
Analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations
In response to the threat presented by AMR, it is critically important to find methods for effectively interpreting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests. A wide array of techniques for analysis of MIC data exist, which require different ways of modifying the MIC data for use as the dependent variable in regression and analysis. For use as the outcome in logistic regression, MIC data is categorized using clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF). Clinical breakpoints classify isolates as susceptible (S), resistant (R), or an intermediate category based on expected clinical outcomes of treatment with a specific antimicrobial. The ECOFF classifies organisms as wild type (WT) or non-wild type (non-WT)  based on the absence or presence of phenotypically-detectable acquired resistance mechanisms to the specific antimicrobial. Dichotomization of MIC data results in information loss, as only changes in the proportions of WT/non-WT or S/R are observed in dichotomized data. As a result, changes in MIC distributions that do not cross the threshold may be unobserved using approaches with dichotomized outcomes. Other modeling approaches for MIC data may attempt to avoid information loss by not dichotomizing the outcome when using regression to analyze MIC data.
  • 1076
  • 02 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Natural Preservatives in Cheese Making
Cheese is a dairy product widely appreciated all over the world, but it is also susceptible to contamination by pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms; therefore, the use of preservatives in cheese making represents an important step.
  • 1029
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Camel husbandry
Minor species such as camels are lacking for transactional agreements between applied research and regulatory agencies in regards of animal welfare. Given these species being progressively recognized as sustainable livestock even under extreme environmental conditions, camel international science has brought about valuable academic efforts towards its functional revalorization but not updated policy reforms. By means of bibliometrics analysis, camel science upturn and its academic and societal impacts were evaluated to highlight the potential promoting factors for camel research advances and specific parallel law enforcing. Historical camel referring documents that were indexed in ScienceDirect directory from 1880-2019 were considered. Camel as a species did not affect research impact (p > 0.05) despite the journal, author number, corresponding author origin, discipline and publication year affecting it (p < 0.001). However, camel welfare-related laws remain scarcely available. In this framework, research advances must play a cardinal role in influencing business stakeholders and animal welfare advocacies to promote sustainable camel husbandry practices through science-based law enforcement in this emerging industry on a global scale.
  • 985
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Capture Myopathy in Spotted Deer
Capture myopathy is a noninfectious disease of the muscle associated with capturing or handling of any animals.
  • 967
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Zoo Food Preparation and Presentation
From its foundations in agricultural science, zoo animal nutrition has developed into a biologically informed, evidence-based discipline. However, some facets of nutrition still make use of a more traditional approach, such as the field of zoo presentation. For example, it is common practice to prepare animal diets by chopping them into bite-size chunks, yet there is limited peer-reviewed evidence that explains the benefits and welfare implications of this practice. The chopping and placement of foods can alter desiccation rates, nutrient breakdown, and food contamination, so it is important to evaluate the implications of current practices. Here, the published literature on the behavioral impacts of different food presentation formats (such as clumped and scattered, and chopped and whole) is reviewed, with reference to a range of taxa. The current state of knowledge of the nutritional and microbiological effects of food presentation practices are also reviewed. Relevant research is available on the behavioral effects of some forms of zoo food presentation; however, relatively little research has been conducted on their nutrient composition effects or desiccation rates. Similarly, there are gaps in terms of the species that have been investigated, with a few mammalian taxa dominating the food presentation literature. Future research projects covering social, behavioral, and welfare impacts, and the nutritional and microbiological consequences of food presentation would further evidence-based zoo and aquarium management practices. Similarly, qualitative research surrounding keeper perception of food presentation formats would help to identify challenges and opportunities in this field.
  • 949
  • 15 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Seafood Spoilage
The term “seafood” includes (i) free-swimming, pelagic and freshwater fish, (ii) crustaceans, (iii) mollusks and (iv) the respective aquacultured species.
  • 918
  • 19 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Anthrozoology is the interdisciplinary study of relationships between humans and other animals.
  • 878
  • 21 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Local Brazilian Goat Breeds
Local Brazilian goat breeds comprise six main groups (Moxotó, Canindé, Repartida, Marota, Graúna, and Azul) and the non descript group derived from crosses.  Local Brazilian goat breeds is a vital genetic resource because they represent the main source of animal's protein to local smallholder communities in the Brazilian semiarid. 
  • 868
  • 20 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Human Remains Detection Dogs
Human remains detection dogs (HRDDs) are powerful police assets to locate a corpse. However, methods used to select and train them are as diverse as the number of countries with such a canine brigade. First, a survey was sent to human remains searching brigades (N Countries = 10; N Brigades = 16; N Handlers = 50; N questions = 9), to collect their working habits. It confirmed the lack of optimized selection and training procedures. Second, a literature review was performed in order to outline the strengths and shortcomings of HRDDs training. A comparison between the scientific knowledge and common practices used by HRDDs brigade was then conducted focusing on HRDDs selection and training procedures. We highlighted that HRDD handlers explained to select their dogs by focusing on behavioral traits while neglecting anatomical features, which have shown their importance. Most HRDD handlers reported to use a reward-based training, which is in accordance with training literature for dogs. Olfactory training aids should be representative of the odor target to allow a dog to reach optimal performances. The survey highlighted the wide diversity of homemade olfactory training aids, and the need to optimize their composition. In the present document, key research topics to improve HRDD works are also provided.
  • 857
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Leonardo da Vinci’s Animal Anatomy
Leonardo da Vinci was the personification of the ideal Renaissance man. Among his many skills, including human anatomical studies, he was also interested in animal anatomy. This comparative study focused on two species: bears and horses. Based on anatomical details (ankle and toes –tarsus and digits–), his drawings of "bear's foot" series depict the right leg and foot, instead of the previously reported left hindlimb. Besides, on the first drawing of this series there is a silhouette of a dog/wolf forearm (antebrachium, carpus and manus) not formerly reported. Relative to Leonardo's horse anatomical drawings, "The viscera of a horse" representing the horse trunk, and based on its blood vessel disposition, we concluded that it is more compatible with the dog anatomy than with the horse structure. Other drawings of comparative anatomy of human and horse pelvic limbs were also explored in detail regarding motion in the full paper. 
  • 853
  • 15 Mar 2021
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