Topic Review
Anti-COVID-19 potential of Clove phytochemicals
The current COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection is enormously affecting the worldwide health and economy. In the wait for an effective global immunization, the development of a specific therapeutic protocol to treat COVID-19 patients is clearly necessary as a short-term solution of the problem. Drug repurposing and herbal medicine represent two of the most explored strategies for an anti-COVID-19 drug discovery. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) is a well-known culinary spice that has been used for centuries in folk medicine in many disorders. Interestingly, traditional medicines have used clove since ancient times to treat respiratory ailments, whilst clove ingredients show antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Other interesting features are the clove antithrombotic, immunostimulatory, and antibacterial effects.
  • 3358
  • 13 May 2021
Topic Review
Epoxide Synthesis and Ring-Opening Reactions
This entry concentrates on some examples of success stories from the synthesis of approved medicines and drug candidates using epoxide chemistry in the development of robust and efficient syntheses at large scale. The focus is on those parts of each synthesis related to the substrate-controlled/diastereoselective and catalytic asymmetric synthesis of epoxide intermediates and their subsequent ring-opening reactions with various nucleophiles. These are described in the form of case studies of high profile pharmaceuticals spanning a diverse range of indications and molecular scaffolds such as heterocycles, terpenes, steroids, peptidomimetics, alkaloids and main stream small molecules. Representative examples include, but are not limited to the antihypertensive diltiazem, the antidepressant reboxetine, the HIV protease inhibitors atazanavir and indinavir, efinaconazole and related triazole antifungals, tasimelteon for sleep disorders, the anticancer agent carfilzomib, the anticoagulant rivaroxaban the antibiotic linezolid and the antiviral oseltamivir. Emphasis is given on aspects of catalytic asymmetric epoxidation employing metals with chiral ligands particularly with the Sharpless and Jacobsen–Katsuki methods as well as organocatalysts such as the chiral ketones of Shi and Yang, Pages's chiral iminium salts and typical chiral phase transfer agents.
  • 813
  • 09 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Small Molecules for Corneal Neovascularization
Multiple natural-source and synthetic small molecules have been tested preclinical for treating corneal neovascularization. Such small molecules include synthetic inhibitors of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor and other tyrosine kinases, plus repurposed antimicrobials, as well as natural source-derived flavonoid and non-flavonoid phytochemicals, immunosuppressants, vitamins, and histone deacetylase inhibitors.
  • 740
  • 17 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Synthesis of nucleobase-modified RNA oligonucleotides
The review summarizes the methods of site-specific incorporation of nucleobase-modified units into RNA oligomers via the post-synthetic strategy including recently discovered native hypermodified functional groups, fluorescent dyes, photoreactive groups, disulfide crosslinks, and nitroxide spin labels.
  • 653
  • 06 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Alzheimer's disease
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease and the most common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly population world-wide.The used medications treat the symptoms of AD, but without any delay on the progression of the disease. Curcumin presented favorable effects on AD. In the last decade curcumin analogues and derivatives have been synthesized in an attempt to optimize the beneficial properties of curcumin and improve its absorbance and  distribution per os as a therapeutic agent. Reviewing the bibliographical data of the last decade, information on the structures and / or chemical groups that are associated with specific action against AD, was gathered, derived from docking studies, (Q)SAR from vitro and in vivo tests. Phenolic hydroxyl groups might contribute to the anti-amyloidogenic activity. Phenyl methoxy groups seems to contribute to the suppression of Aβ42 and to the suppression of APP. Hydrophobic interactions revealed to be important. The presence of flexible moieties at the linker are crucial for the inhibition of Aβ aggregation. The inhibitory activity of derivatives is increased with the expansion of the aromatic rings. The keto-enol tautomer form offers as a new modification for the design of amyloid-binding agents. Taking the above under consideration  innovative design  and synthesis will lead to more potent and specific curcumin analogues and derivatives against AD.
  • 575
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease
The main protease (Mpro) of the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was subjected to hyphenated pharmacophoric-based and structural-based virtual screenings using a library of microbial natural products (>24,000 compounds). Subsequent filtering of the resulted hits according to Lipinski’s rules was applied to select only the drug-like molecules. Top-scoring hits were further filtered out depending on their ability to show constant good binding affinities towards the molecular dynamic simulation (MDS)-derived enzyme’s conformers. Final MDS experiments were performed on the ligand-protein complexes to verify their binding modes and calculate their binding free energy. Consequently, a final selection of six compounds of microbial origin was proposed to possess high potential as anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidates. Our study provides insight into the role of the Mpro structural flexibility during interactions with the possible inhibitors and sheds light on the structure-based design of anti-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapeutics targeting SARS-CoV-2
  • 553
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Red Macroalgae
Red Seaweed “Rhodophyta” are an important group of macroalgae that include approximately 7000 species. They are a rich source of structurally diverse bioactive constituents, including protein, sulfated polysaccharides, pigments, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and phenolic compounds with nutritional, medical, and industrial importance. Polysaccharides are the main components in the cell wall of red algae and represent about 40–50% of the dry weight, which are extensively utilized in industry and pharmaceutical compounds, due to their thickening and gelling properties. The hydrocolloids galactans carrageenans and agars are the main red seaweed cell wall polysaccharides, which had broad-spectrum therapeutic characters. Generally, the chemical contents of seaweed are different according to the algal species, growth stage, environment, and external conditions, e.g., the temperature of the water, light intensity, nutrient concentrations in the ecosystem. Economically, they can be recommended as a substitute source for natural ingredients that contribute to a broad range of bioactivities like cancer therapy, anti-inflammatory agents, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory. This entry touches on the mainpoints of the pharmaceutical applications of red seaweed, as well as the exploitation of their specific compounds and secondary metabolites with vital roles.
  • 548
  • 07 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Drug Delivery for Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death globally, taking an estimated 17.9 million lives each year, representing one third of global mortality. As existing therapies still have limited success, due to the inability to control the biodistribution of the currently approved drugs, the quality of life of these patients is modest. The advent of nanomedicine has brought new insights in innovative treatment strategies.
  • 548
  • 08 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Xanthone is an aromatic oxygenated heterocyclic molecule, with a dibenzo-γ-pirone scaffold, known as 9H-xanthen-9-one, with the molecular formula of C13H8O2.
  • 524
  • 23 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Bee-Products in Male Reproductive Impairment
Bee products are sources of functional food that have been used in complementary medicine to treat a variety of acute and chronic illnesses in many parts of the world. The products vary from location to location as well as country to country. 
  • 514
  • 08 Jun 2021
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