Topic Review
AAZTA-Derived Chelators as Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals
The chelating agent AAZTA features a mesocyclic seven-membered diazepane ring, conferring some of the properties of both acyclic and macrocyclic chelating agents. Described in the early 2000s, AAZTA and its derivatives exhibited interesting properties once complexed with metals and radiometals, combining a fast kinetic of formation with a slow kinetic of dissociation. Importantly, the extremely short coordination reaction times allowed by AAZTA derivatives were particularly suitable for short half-life radioelements (i.e., 68Ga).
  • 203
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Ag2O–MnO2/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite
Catalytic oxidation of alcohol to their analogous carbonyls is one of the key organic reactions in both scientific and industrial applications, with universal production of 10,000 million tons/year of carbonyls in the 20th century. Such as, aldehyde and ketone derivatives are extensively employed as precursors in insecticide, flame-retardant, cosmetic, confectionery, flavoring, pharmaceutical, and beverage industries. 
  • 577
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Asymmetric Recognition by Chiral Porphyrinoids
Over the years, chiral discrimination of chiral molecules such as amino acids, alcohols, amines, hydroxy-carboxylic acids, etc. has aroused the interest of the scientific community. Thus, numerous studies have reported the possibility to discriminate several organic guests by using both symmetric and asymmetric porphyrin derivatives. Nevertheless, this entry exclusively focuses on chiral porphyrinoids as probes for asymmetric recognition and sensing, illustrating the main aspects concerning the chiral recognition phenomena of a multitude of chiral organic guests through several chiral mono- and bis-porphyrins via different spectroscopic techniques.
  • 185
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Au-Containing Cuprates
High pressure applications is strongly required for the synthesis of these materials because it is only way to stabilize gold oxides which are thermally very unstable at ambient pressures.
  • 118
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Boron Chemicals
Boron-based bioactive compounds have provided amphiphilic properties to facilitate interaction with protein targets. Indeed, the spectrum of boron-based entities as drug candidates against many diseases has grown tremendously since the first clinically tested boron-based drug, Velcade. 
  • 186
  • 27 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Brief History of Oxygen
Oxygen, a paramagnetic, diradical gaseous (at room temperature) molecule, is instrumental to life as we know it. It is also crucial to some medical therapies, used in multiple industries and has even been found on other planets. The importance of oxygen cannot be overplayed.
  • 74
  • 28 Apr 2022
Topic Review
C,C- and C,N-Chelated Organocopper Compounds
Copper-catalyzed and organocopper-involved reactions are of great significance in organic synthesis. To have a deep understanding of the reaction mechanisms, the structural characterizations of organocopper intermediates become indispensable. Meanwhile, the structure-function relationship of organocopper compounds could advance the rational design and development of new Cu-based reactions and organocopper reagents. Compared to the mono-carbonic ligand, the C,N- and C,C-bidentate ligands better stabilize unstable organocopper compounds. Bidentate ligands can chelate to the same copper atom via η2-mode, forming a mono-cupra-cyclic compounds with at least one acute C-Cu-C angle. When the bidentate ligands bind to two copper atoms via η1-mode at each coordinating site, the bimetallic macrocyclic compounds will form nearly linear C-Cu-C angles. The anionic coordinating sites of the bidentate ligand can also bridge two metals via μ2-mode, forming organocopper aggregates with Cu-Cu interactions and organocuprates with contact ion pair structures. The reaction chemistry of some selected organocopper compounds is highlighted, showing their unique structure–reactivity relationships.
  • 118
  • 08 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Cadmium Recovery from Spent Ni-Cd Batteries
The significant increase in the demand for efficient electric energy storage during the last decade has promoted an increase in the production and use of Cd-containing batteries. On the one hand, the amount of toxic Cd-containing used batteries is growing, while on the other hand, Cd is on a list of critical raw materials (for Europe). Both of these factors call for the development of effective technology for Cd recovery from spent batteries. Alkaline nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries are widely used as autonomous sources of industrial and household current (power banks) due to a successful combination of feasibility studies and achieved sustainable electrical characteristics. In recent decades, the market of secondary current sources for portable equipment has undergone significant changes, which leads to an intensive replacement of Ni-Cd batteries with lithium-ion (LIB) and nickel-metal-hydride.
  • 125
  • 07 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Catalysts for Glycerol Reforming
The valuable products produced from glycerol transformation have become a research route that attracted considerable benefits owing to their huge volumes as well as a myriad of chemical and biological techniques for transforming glycerol into high-value compounds, such as fuel additives, biofuels, precursors, and other useful chemicals, etc. Steam, aqueous, and autothermal reforming processes have been primarily investigated in glycerol reforming. An update on glycerol reforming is given, with an exclusive focus on the various catalyst's performance in designing reaction operation conditions.
  • 58
  • 25 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Cement-Based Repair Materials with Concrete Substrates
Cement concrete is currently the most widely used civil engineering construction material worldwide and has been applied in various civil infrastructures, such as roads, bridges, ports and tunnels. Under the external loads and environmental impacts, concrete structures are prone to be damaged, such as cracking and even spalling. In addition, inappropriate selection of raw materials, incorrect mixture design and irregular construction process may also cause damages to concrete, particularly regarding the cover protecting the reinforcement bars.
  • 183
  • 13 Apr 2022
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