Topic Review
Glyphosate
Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine CAS#1071-83-6] is one of the most extensively used broad-spectrum organophosphorus herbicides [1]. It is a widely used herbicide in agriculture against perennial and annual weeds and in silviculture, domestic gardens, and urban areas [2]. 
  • 344
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Copper Biological Active Complexes
Very few biological active Cu(II) complexes entered in clinical trials as result of poor water solubility and lipophilicity, low stability as well as in vivo inactivation. Their pharmacological and/or oral administration profile can be improved either by physically encapsulation or by conjugation to an organic matrix via a moiety able to coordinate Cu(II). As result, a large variety of species were developed as delivery carriers such as liposomes, synthetic or natural polymers or dendrimers.
  • 307
  • 28 Dec 2020
Topic Review
CO2 Hydroboration
The use of CO2 as C1 building block for chemical synthesis is receiving growing attention, due to the potential of this simple molecule as abundant and cheap renewable feedstock. Among the possible reductants used in the literature to bring about CO2 reduction to C1 derivatives, hydroboranes have found various applications, in the presence of suitable homogenous catalysts. The main results obtained since 2016 in the synthetic design of main group, first and second row transition metals for use as catalysts for CO2 hydroboration are summarized.
  • 286
  • 15 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Cluster-Based Coordination Polymers
Cluster-based coordination polymers (CCPs) are constructed from metal coordination clusters that are bridged by polytopic organic ligands forming multidimensional systems such as one-dimensional (1D) chains, two-dimensional (2D) layers, and three-dimensional (3D) metal-organic frameworks. Structurally well-defined polynuclear Mn(II,III)/Fe(III)-oxo pivalate and isobutyrate clusters recommend them-selves as extremely versatille building blocks where their ancillary coordination ligands are sufficiently flexible to allow the formation of a wide variety of 1D, 2D and 3D CCPs.
  • 281
  • 07 May 2021
Topic Review
Crystallization of LiNbO3
Due to its piezoelectric, ferroelectric, nonlinear optics, and pyroelectric properties, LiNbO3 crystal has found its wide applications in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, optical waveguides, optical modulators, and second-harmonic generators (SHG). LiNbO3 crystallized as R3c space group below Curie temperature shows spontaneous polarization that leads to its ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Physical and chemical characteristics of LiNbO3 are mainly determined by Li/Nb ratio, impurity cations, vacancies in a cation sublattice. Different sizes of LiNbO3 ranging from nanoscale and microscale to bulk size have been synthesized by solid state method, hydrothermal/solvothermal method, Czochralski (Cz) growth method, etc. Most basic and applied studies of LiNbO3 focus on its bulk single crystal.
  • 275
  • 17 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Layered Oxide Cathodes
Layered intercalation compounds are the dominant cathode materials for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. In this review, we discuss the topology of the layered structure and explain how the structure (1) sets the voltage slope trends among various alkali ions, (2) is critically limited to certain transition metals due to their electronic structure, and (3) controls the alkali diffusion mechanism. 
  • 232
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Ti-Based Catalysts on Magnesium Hydride
Magnesium-based hydrides are considered as promising candidates for solid-state hydrogen storage and thermal energy storage, due to their high hydrogen capacity, reversibility, and elemental abundance of Mg. To improve the sluggish kinetics of MgH2, catalytic doping using Ti-based catalysts is regarded as an effective approach to enhance Mg-based materials.
  • 220
  • 31 May 2021
Topic Review
AAZTA-Derived Chelators as Innovative Radiopharmaceuticals
The chelating agent AAZTA features a mesocyclic seven-membered diazepane ring, conferring some of the properties of both acyclic and macrocyclic chelating agents. Described in the early 2000s, AAZTA and its derivatives exhibited interesting properties once complexed with metals and radiometals, combining a fast kinetic of formation with a slow kinetic of dissociation. Importantly, the extremely short coordination reaction times allowed by AAZTA derivatives were particularly suitable for short half-life radioelements (i.e., 68Ga).
  • 203
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Boron Chemicals
Boron-based bioactive compounds have provided amphiphilic properties to facilitate interaction with protein targets. Indeed, the spectrum of boron-based entities as drug candidates against many diseases has grown tremendously since the first clinically tested boron-based drug, Velcade. 
  • 186
  • 27 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Asymmetric Recognition by Chiral Porphyrinoids
Over the years, chiral discrimination of chiral molecules such as amino acids, alcohols, amines, hydroxy-carboxylic acids, etc. has aroused the interest of the scientific community. Thus, numerous studies have reported the possibility to discriminate several organic guests by using both symmetric and asymmetric porphyrin derivatives. Nevertheless, this entry exclusively focuses on chiral porphyrinoids as probes for asymmetric recognition and sensing, illustrating the main aspects concerning the chiral recognition phenomena of a multitude of chiral organic guests through several chiral mono- and bis-porphyrins via different spectroscopic techniques.
  • 185
  • 17 Nov 2021
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