Topic Review
(−)-Methyl-Oleocanthal, a New Oleocanthal Metabolite
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses of (−)-methyl-oleocanthal (met-OLE), a new metabolite of the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenolic oleocanthal (OLE), were explored in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine peritoneal macrophages. Possible signaling pathways and epigenetic modulation of histones were studied. Met-OLE inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrite (NO) production and decreased the overexpression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes COX-2, mPGES-1 and iNOS in murine macrophages.
  • 173
  • 13 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Actual Symmetry of Symmetric Adducts
This review discusses molecular adducts, whose composition allows a symmetric structure. Such adducts are popular model systems, as they are useful for analyzing the effect of structure on the property selected for study since they allow one to reduce the number of parameters. The main objectives of this discussion are to evaluate the influence of the surroundings on the symmetry of these adducts, steric hindrances within the adducts, competition between different noncovalent interactions responsible for stabilizing the adducts, and experimental methods that can be used to study the symmetry at different time scales. This review considers the following central binding units: hydrogen (proton), halogen (anion), metal (cation), water (hydrogen peroxide). 
  • 119
  • 10 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Albumin Conjugates as MRI Agents
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma. It is found at a concentration of roughly 0.7 mM in the vasculature. HSA is a monomeric multidomain biomolecule, representing the main determinant of plasma oncotic pressure and displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity. HSA represents the main carrier for fatty acids, affects the pharmacokinetics of many drugs, can be a platform for drug discovery, suitable transport for therapy and diagnostics. Here we develop a class of macromolecular constructs from nitroxides conjugated to a human carrier protein as potential Organic radical contrast agents (ORCAs) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is a powerful non-invasive tool for clinics. The MRI specificity can be improved by enhancing by the addition of a contrast agent. The most efficient of the currently-used contrast agents are paramagnetic gadolinium chelates. However, the low stability of some chelates and therefore release toxic metal ions from the chelates provide harmful oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane dysfunction, changes in gene expression, DNA damage, mutagenicity, etc. Therefore, there is sufficient interest in the production of “metal-free” MRI contrast agents.
  • 227
  • 29 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Amadori Rearrangement Products
Flavor is one of the most important factors in attracting consumers and maximizing food quality, and the Maillard reaction (MR) is highly-involved in flavor formation. However, Maillard reaction products have a big drawback in their relatively low stability in thermal treatment and storage. Amadori rearrangement products (ARPs), MR intermediates, can alternatively act as potential flavor additives for their better stability and fresh flavor formation ability.
  • 450
  • 05 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Amino Acid
α-Amino acids find widespread applications in various areas of life and physical sciences. Their syntheses are carried out by a multitude of protocols, of which Petasis and Strecker reactions have emerged as the most straightforward and most widely used.
  • 391
  • 04 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Antimicrobial Activity of Calixarenes/Related Macrocycles
Calixarenes have been shown to have antimicrobial effects since the 1950s. These properties are exemplified through their applications as prodrugs, drug delivery agents and biofilm inhibitors. A particularly important development in recent years has been their ability to engage in multivalent interactions with proteins, thus inhibiting cellular aggregation.
  • 355
  • 12 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Ascorbic Acid-Induced Reactions
Ascorbic acid is the most well-known vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis. Ascorbic acid can be used as a substrate or mediator in organic synthesis. In this review, we report ascorbic acid-catalyzed reactions in organic synthesis. Several examples are included in this review to demonstrate that ascorbic acid is a versatile catalyst for the synthesis of diverse organic compounds. Reactions catalyzed by ascorbic acid are performed in organic or aqueous media. The readily available and easy handling features of ascorbic acid make these procedures highly fascinating.
  • 681
  • 25 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Ascorbic Acid-Mediated Reactions
Ascorbic acid is a vitamin found in different types of food. It has tremendous medical applications in several different fields such as in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and in organic synthesis. 
  • 1122
  • 25 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Asymmetric Catalytic Ketimine Mannich Reactions
These ketimines are less electrophilic and thus, arguably, more challenging substrates. 3-Aryl-3-hydroxyisoindolin-1-ones are often employed as stable precursors for the corresponding endocyclic N-carbonyl diaryl ketimines. This class of ketimines is useful synthons to access chiral isoindolin-1-ones that are an important motif found in numerous biologically relevant molecules and natural products.
  • 166
  • 05 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Aurilide Family
Aurilides are a class of depsipeptides occurring mainly in marine cyanobacteria. Members of the aurilide family have shown to exhibit strong cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. These compounds bear a pentapeptide, a polyketide, and an α-hydroxy ester subunit in their structure.
  • 189
  • 18 Mar 2021
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