Topic Review
Black Soldier Fly
The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, is a large Stratiomyidae fly (13-20 mm size) found worldwide, but it is believed to have originated in the Americas. It is frequently found in the tropics and temperate regions throughout the world. Although adapted primarily to these regions, it can tolerate wide extremes of temperature except when ovipositing. They are generally considered a beneficial insect and non-pest. The adult fly does not have mouthparts, stingers, or digestive organs; thus, they do not bite or sting and do not feed during its short lifespan. They feed only as larvae and are, therefore, not associated with disease transmission. BSF larvae (BSFL) are voracious eaters of a wide range of organic wastes, decomposing and returning nutrients to the soil. Additionally, BSFL is an alternative  protein source for aquaculture, pet food, livestock feed, and human nutrition.
  • 7443
  • 28 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Lignosulfonates are biobased surfactants and specialty chemicals, which are usually produced as a byproduct during sulfite pulping of wood. They are the technical lignin that is, by far, the most commercially traded and are hence vital for replacing non‑renewable and fossil‑based chemicals. Due to their prominent use as plasticizers, dispersants, and stabilizers, the physicochemical properties of lignosulfonates play a key role in determining their end‑use and performance. Their chemical composition and structure are inherently linked to the characteristic behavior of lignosulfonates. This entry hence outlines the fundamental chemistry of lignosulfonates, while discussing the following physicochemical properties: · Solubility in different solvents · Conformation and shape in aqueous solution · Self-association and agglomeration in aqueous solution · Precipitation · Adsorption at surfaces and interfaces
  • 1875
  • 05 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Carbon Anode
Carbon anode refers to a broad family of essentially pure carbon, whose members can be tailored to vary widely in their strength, density, conductivity, pore structure, and crystalline development. These attributes contribute to their widespread applicability. Specific characteristics are imparted to the finished product by controlling the selection of precursor materials (including cokes, polymers and fibers) and the method of processing. In general, carbon anode electrodes are characterized by low cost production, high surface area, a wide working potential window in many media, high electrocatalytic activities for different redox-active chemical and biochemical systems, and chemical inertness.Moreover, their surface chemistry enables the functionalization of these carbon platforms via strong covalent or noncovalent methods with surface modifiers, which improves their electrochemical performance. Recent achievements of carbon anode materials and their structural design for better performances of aluminium production, lithium-ion secondary batteries, lithium cobalt oxide batteries, nano-tube production, substitution of amorphous electrode materials, photoanodes production, solar cells, fuel cells, supercapacitors, sensors and pumps, neurochemical monitors, etc., are finding enormous applications in industrial, commercial and social sectors. 
  • 1312
  • 31 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Compositional Engineering of Perovskites
We give a systematic overview of compositional engineering by distinguishing the different defect-reducing mechanisms. Doping effects are divided into influences on: (1) crystallization; (2) lattice properties. Incorporation of dopant influences the lattice properties by: (a) lattice strain relaxation; (b) chemical bonding enhancement; (c) band gap tuning. The intrinsic lattice strain in undoped perovskite was shown to induce vacancy formation. The incorporation of smaller ions, such as Cl, F and Cd, increases the energy for vacancy formation. Zn doping is reported to induce strain relaxation but also to enhance the chemical bonding. The combination of computational studies using (DFT) calculations quantifying and qualifying the defect-reducing propensities of different dopants with experimental studies is essential for a deeper understanding and unraveling insights, such as the dynamics of iodine vacancies and the photochemistry of the iodine interstitials, and can eventually lead to a more rational approach in the search for optimal photovoltaic materials.
  • 1147
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Copper(II) Complex
A dinuclear copper(II) complex of (1) (where bipy = 2,2′‑bipyridine, bzt = benzoate and ox = oxalate) was synthesised and characterised by diffractometric (powder and single-crystal XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses, spectroscopic techniques (IR, Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and electronic spectroscopy), magnetic measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The analysis of the crystal structure revealed that the oxalate ligand is in bis(bidentate) coordination mode between two copper(II) centres. The other four positions of the coordination environment of the copper(II) ion are occupied by one water molecule, a bidentate bipy and a monodentate bzt ligand. An inversion centre located on the ox ligand generates the other half of the dinuclear complex. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds and pi-pi for the organisation of the molecules in the solid state. Molar magnetic susceptibility and field dependence magnetisation studies evidenced a weak intramolecular–ferromagnetic interaction (J = +2.9 cm‑1) between the metal ions. The sign and magnitude of the calculated J value by density functional theory (DFT) are in agreement with the experimental data.
  • 1093
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Polylactic Acid
As a degradable and environmentally friendly polymer, polylactic acid, also known as polylactide, is favored by researchers and has been used as a commercial material in various studies. Lactic acid, as a synthetic raw material of polylactic acid, can only be obtained by sugar fermentation. Good biocompatibility and biodegradability have led it to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a biomedical material. Polylactic acid has good physical properties, and its modification can optimize its properties to a certain extent. Polylactic acid blocks and blends play significant roles in drug delivery, implants, and tissue engineering to great effect.  This entry introduces synthesis and biological application of polylactic acid.
  • 1093
  • 17 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Biofilm and Pathogen Inhibition in Cooling Towers Using Natural Chemistry
Industrial comfort cooling and process cooling typically employ water evaporative cooling towers (CTs) to dissipate reject heat.  This warm water, enriched with nutrient materials scrubbed from the air or in source water, provides a nurturing environment for a wide variety of neutrophilic microorganisms, some of which are human pathogens.  For example, cases of Legionella pneumophila infection have been traced to CT Systems that have become pubic hazards in recent years.  Typically, one or more toxic microbicides are applied to control the problem.  This article highlights two case studies that utilize ultra-softened (<0.3 mg/L total hardness), highly-concentrated chemical components, naturally present in almost all makeup water sources used by CT Systems, that can generate high-pH, high-TDS cooling water.  At sufficient concentrations, these two natural parameters are hostile to microorganisms, including protozoa and slime-forming (biofilm) bacteria that harbor pathogens.  Field testing for Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP), reported in Relative Light Units (RLU), provides a quick, sensitive method to detect all water-borne microbiological activity present in CT Systems and verifies the effectiveness of the anti-microbial program by quantifiable data, reported as ATP-RLU.
  • 1080
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Biosensors for Malaria Biomarkers
This entry discusses recent advances in the development of biosensors for the purposes of malaria diagnostics. It underscore relevant challenges that have defined the gap between biosensor development and their successful utilization in routine clinical practice within resource-limitted settings. It proposes a way to think about developing biosensors that are suitable for biomedical diagnostics applications.
  • 1045
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Carbon Dots: Synthesis and Properties
Carbon dots (CDs) are zero-dimensional optically active carbon-based nanomaterials with a size of less than 10 nm. The material property of the CD is largely linked to the various bottom-up & top-down synthesis approaches, including surface passivation and functionalization, and the carbon precursors. The CDs can be engineered to enhance the chemical and physical functional properties by doping with heteroatom such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, fluorine, and boron. Because of its various advantageous properties, CDs are utilized in the field of chemical/biological sensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery. These nanosized CDs can change their light emission properties in response to various external stimuli such as pH, temperature, pressure, and light. The CD’s remarkable stimuli-responsive smart material properties have recently stimulated massive research interest for their exploitation to develop various sensor platforms. 
  • 980
  • 16 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Epoxides Cycloaddition for CO2 Utilization
In the present review (10.3390/pr8050548), CO2 cycloaddition can be seen as a reasonably competent alternative to CO2 transformation, offsetting the high value-added nature by extending material use defer CO2 back to the atmosphere when compared to commodities and fuels such as urea, methanol, and methane.
  • 818
  • 27 Aug 2020
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