Topic Review
Detection and Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19
Latest weeks the humanity is faced with the spread of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 that causes a respiratory illness with high mortality rates, COVID-19. Since there is no approved treatment or vaccination against that specific coronavirus the reduce in virus spread is essential. That is based in the use of appropriate tools, enabling the accurate and early detection. Molecular biology and immunological techniques are widely used in order to predict the COVID-19 cases in a very short period of time. These are commonly based either in identification of the SARS-CoV-2’s genetic material or in detection of antibodies that have been produced by the immune system against the virus. Many of the above mentioned tests have been validated and approved by local authorities. However, there are much more companies that provide detection tests, without basic validation processes, contributing in non-precise data. The present review aim to analyze the most common platforms that are used in COVID-19 detection, analyzing their advantages and weaknesses. Therefore, each physician will be equipped with appropriate information required for each test.
  • 1754
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Nonparametric Limits of Agreement
The assessment of agreement in method comparison and observer variability analysis of quantitative measurements is usually done by the Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement, where the paired differences are implicitly assumed to follow a normal distribution. Whenever this assumption does not hold, the 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles are obtained by quantile estimation. In the literature, empirical quantiles have been used for this purpose. In this simulation study, we applied both sample, subsampling, and kernel quantile estimators as well as other methods for quantile estimation to sample sizes between 30 and 150 and different distributions of the paired differences. The performance of 15 estimators in generating prediction intervals was measured by their respective coverage probability for one newly generated observation. Our results indicated that sample quantile estimators based on one or two order statistics outperformed all the other estimators and can be used for deriving nonparametric Limits of Agreement. For sample sizes exceeding 80 observations, more advanced quantile estimators, such as the Harrell-Davis and estimators of Sfakianakis-Verginis type, which use all the observed differences, performed likewise well, but may be considered intuitively more appealing than simple sample quantile estimators that are based on only two observations per quantile.
  • 1180
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM)
The Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) is innovative as most behavioral theories only model single activity. The CCAM, however, models different single activities—such as physical activity and nutrition —and how they change as a result of one another. Such lifestyle activities are assumed to be formed by higher-level goals, which can drive activity volitionally or unconsciously, and are rather unspecific. They become specific because of activities that are subjectively seen as leading to this goal. Each activity must be intended, pursued, and controlled. Specific resources ensure that individuals have the chance to translate their intentions into activity and that they resist distractors. Compensation and transfer (also called carry-over) operate between the different activities. If people devote all of their energy to one domain and believe that no resources remain for the other activity, compensation can help to attain goals. It is also possible that an individual successfully performs one activity, and existing or developing resources may be transferred to another activity.
  • 919
  • 16 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Wearable Devices for Stroke Prediction
Stroke ranks as one of the top first leading causes of death and disability worldwide, particularly for the most populous countries in Asia, Europe, and North America. The emerging wearable devices intended to monitor the physiological parameters, and the growth of machine learning applied to predict diseases, are promising solutions to prevent stroke and eventually predict stroke risk.
  • 808
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Drone Brood
Drone brood homogenate (known as apilarnil or less apistimul) is a bee product obtained by the collection of drone (male honeybees)  larvae from drone cells of honey comb, from 3 to 11 days after hatching. Apilarnil, which may be defined as the male equivalent of royal jelly, is obtained from drone brood and then freeze-dried. Etymologically, the term originates from “api” for bee, “lar” for larvae, and “nil” as a shortened form of its discoverer’s name - Romanian apitherapist Nicholae Iliesiu. 
  • 640
  • 17 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Whey Proteins
Whey proteins have implications in different fields related to human life quality. The aim of this overview was to present the basic chemistry of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and lactotransferrin - main proteins of bovine whey. 
  • 587
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Decision Support for Patient-Centered Care
Care management strategies could be effectively used and augmented by shared decision support systems or artificial intelligence.  Evidence-based approaches to the determinants and consequences of chronic care management  are suggested. The proper utilization of care management strategies will not only enhance better patient care outcomes but also reduce the hospitalization or readmission.
  • 453
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Anti-Obesity Effects of Microalgae
Microalgae are prokaryotic or eukaryotic microscopic single-cell organisms, producing a great variety of compounds, such as photosynthetic pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls), sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, fiber, polysaccharides, enzymes, peptides, and toxins. In recent years, they have attracted great interest as a major source of bioactive medicinal products and food ingredients with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. In most pre-clinical studies performed with Euglena gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Spirulina maxima, Spirulina platensis, or Nitzschia laevis microalgae, positive anti-obesity effects have been addressed in animals submitted to an obesogenic feeding pattern. However, more research is warranted to determine which bioactive compound(s) are responsible for their anti-obesity effects, as well as to establish the mechanisms underlying those effects.
  • 451
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Nursing Interventions for Smoking Cessation
The purpose of this entry is to synthesize the factors that are associated with smoking cessation intervention among nurses. We conducted a systematic search of the literature published from database inception through to 22 April 2020, in five electronic databases including Pubmed, CINAHL Plus, Scopus, Web of science, and ProQuest.
  • 423
  • 25 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Applications of electrolyzed water
As the situation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still de-teriorating, there has been a huge increase in the demand and use of disinfectants. Electrolyzed water (EW), as a novel broad-spectrum disinfectant and cleaner, has been widely used for several years.
  • 379
  • 26 Jan 2021
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