Topic Review
Underwater Connectors
Underwater connectors are very essential and complex components of deep-sea engineering equipment and their design and manufacture have apparent multidisciplinary characteristics. Wet-mateable connectors (WMCs) represent the highest level of technology in this field, and only a very few countries in the world can produce WMCs. So, WMCs are likely to be a constraining factor to some maritime powers that might try to achieve breakthroughs in this field, constraining the innovation-driven development of deep-sea equipment.
  • 468
  • 19 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Blockchain Applications in Agribusiness
Blockchain is a communication network where data is stored and shared in a distributed manner among all its nodes and links, eliminating any reliable authority centralized in different business models and where each node can assume coordination without a unified data center. Blockchain is a chain of blocks of information forming a distributed database where a group of people controls, records, and shares information used in various types of applications and is interconnected through platforms and hardware worldwide.
  • 458
  • 27 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a global development programme of the UN’s blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all, containing 17 goals adopted in 2015. They address the challenges that global populations are facing, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace and justice. The programmes generally emphasise sustainable economic growth and strengthening modes of sustainability to implement the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. Of these SDGs, SDGS 7, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 17 are, directly and/or indirectly, linked to the phenomena of sustainability and circularity. Governments in the countries that are signatories of the United Nation (UN)’s SDGs play a crucial role in the target achievement by taking different actions, including national policies and programmes, related to the SDGs.
  • 319
  • 24 Oct 2021
Topic Review
COVID-19 Effect on Supply Chains
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated disruptions in supply chains, traveling, businesses, and a loss of human lives that is being accounted for at least five million diseased. When the pandemic started, uncertainties, the lockdown of countries, and stay-at-home orders generated that millions of people made runs to grocery stores to buy essential products, the most distinctive being hygiene tissue, antibacterial formulations, and hand sanitizers. Then workers in essential processes in the medical, food, and manufacturing industries had to restart work to keep supply chains running. That generated further repercussions due to the infection of workers in multiple facilities, which created more considerable uncertainties. Universities and schools were mandated to close, and work-from-home orders were enacted in most sectors. In this entry, a summary of the essential factors, current situation, and future perspective regarding the effect generated by COVID-19 on the disruptions of supply chains is presented. The strategic sectors summarized are food and produce, transportation, paper products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, medical supplies, automobiles, minerals and technology companies. At two years since the WHO declaration, there are still shockwaves that show some unpredictability. Hence, companies and governments should look for strategical plans for preparing for this kind of event, making supply chains resilient or even immune to pandemics, natural disasters and trade wars.
  • 307
  • 22 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Contractual Systems in Oil/Gas Sector
Production activities in the oil and gas industry are capital intensive and associated with high technology, with these assets not always being available to oil-producing countries or national companies. Any form of interaction between the parties involved in natural resource extraction requires clear regulation regarding contractual relationships. This study attempts to analyze Indonesia’s production sharing contract system in order to assess its applicability to other conditions. The article covers the key aspects of contract theory, provides a classification of contractual systems in the oil and gas sector, and discusses the most common types of contractual agreements. It also considers the key principles of production sharing contracts (PSCs), analyzes the development of PSC practices in Indonesia over the past sixty years, and highlights PSC advantages and disadvantages.
  • 285
  • 10 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Blockchain-Based Wine Supply Chain for the Industry Advancement
Wine production counts more than 8000 years and it is still one of the most significant agri-food sectors worldwide considering the generated revenues in the countries' economies and employment level in the sector as well as the health aspects of wine consumption.
  • 274
  • 01 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Rural Tourism Destination
Rural tourism is considered a high potential form of tourism, enhanced by the demand for more sustainable and nature-based solutions, and able to contribute to territory resilience. A rural area is not necessarily a tourist destination, but it might become one, if agricultural enterprises are willing to diversify their economic activities by investing in rural tourism, and local actors provide active support and co-participation.
  • 270
  • 05 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Factors That Drive Purchasing of Groceries through E-Commerce
Online shopping is a rapidly evolving industry, as Internet technologies and applications provide customers with more accessible, convenient, and cost-effective ways to find a wider range of products than traditional shopping. A crisis such as COVID-19 also causes consumers to learn or adapt to new shopping habits. Understanding consumer purchasing patterns during crises is critical to any business’s success.
  • 249
  • 22 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Food Losses and Waste of Food
In recent times the issue of food losses and waste of food (FLW) has received increased academic and political attention. Although the definition of FLW is not clear, the truth is that globally roughly one-third of food is not consumed and is wasted, equivalent to 1.3. billion tonnes per year. The reasons for FLW differ between countries. In developed countries, most FLW occurs at the retail, foodservice and, home stages of the food supply chain for a variety of reasons. For instance, food not used in time, burning, spoilage, personal preferences or, leftover waste. While in developing countries FLW is mainly due to the absence of infrastructure, lack of knowledge and, investment in storage technologies.
  • 220
  • 02 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Entrepreneurship and Agribusiness in Agro-Economy in Nigeria
Since most scholars have agreed that there is a positive relationship between the growth of agricultural (agribusiness) and entrepreneurship, this has given a clear understanding that achieving high entrepreneurship development is critical to the transformation agenda of Nigeria’s agro-economy. Nigeria’s current demography reveals that the youth population may continue to rise in the coming decades, with more teenagers coming into the youth age. The implication of this for the already stressed economy could be devastating if these human resources are not properly harnessed. Efforts to managing these energetic individuals without cutting edge employment and/or entrepreneurship policy structure will not yield a desirable economic outcome.
  • 220
  • 27 May 2022
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