Topic Review
Virtual Currency
Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community. The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission has warned investors against pump and dump schemes that use virtual currencies. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), a bureau of the US Treasury, defined virtual currency in its guidance published in 2013. In 2014, the European Banking Authority defined virtual currency as "a digital representation of value that is neither issued by a central bank or a public authority, nor necessarily attached to a fiat currency, but is accepted by natural or legal persons as a means of payment and can be transferred, stored or traded electronically". By contrast, a digital currency that is issued by a central bank is defined as "central bank digital currency".
  • 59
  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Vectoring & Fractalisation Of Fiscal Stress
Never before like pan global contagion pandemic COVID-19 has intensely up-regulated stress on the indo money-market domains.  Authors try to see the light at end of tunnel. Consider direct finance to consumers as the anti-dote; termed as fractalisation; vectoring; and granulation of stress. Heritage structure as cue and parable. Identify the internal causes of an obstinate stress causers and Ayurvedic sector as the green field opportunity.  
  • 437
  • 14 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Values of Cryptocurrencies Affected by COVID-19
Cryptocurrencies have become a popular economic and financial topic. When a cryptocurrency is defined as a digital currency, it is very different from a fiat currency because cryptocurrencies are not issued by any judicial body. Generally, a cryptocurrency does not have any original intrinsic value; however, it has an extrinsic value that is totally dependent on the expectation that future investors will be willing to pay for it in the cryptocurrency market. 
  • 137
  • 01 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Usury (/ˈjuːʒəri/) is the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans that unfairly enrich the lender. The term may be used in a moral sense—condemning, taking advantage of others' misfortunes—or in a legal sense, where an interest rate is charged in excess of the maximum rate that is allowed by law. A loan may be considered usurious because of excessive or abusive interest rates or other factors defined by a nation's laws. Someone who practices usury can be called a usurer, but in contemporary English may be called a loan shark. In many historical societies including ancient Christian, Jewish, and many modern Islamic societies, usury meant the charging of interest of any kind and was considered wrong, or was made illegal. During the Sutra period in India (7th to 2nd centuries BC) there were laws prohibiting the highest castes from practicing usury. Similar condemnations are found in religious texts from Buddhism, Judaism (ribbit in Hebrew), Christianity, and Islam (riba in Arabic). At times, many nations from ancient Greece to ancient Rome have outlawed loans with any interest. Though the Roman Empire eventually allowed loans with carefully restricted interest rates, the Catholic Church in medieval Europe, as well as the Reformed Churches, regarded the charging of interest at any rate as sinful (as well as charging a fee for the use of money, such as at a bureau de change). Religious prohibitions on usury are predicated upon the belief that charging interest on a loan is a sin.
  • 32
  • 22 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Unabsorbed Slack Resources and Enterprise Innovation
In 1963, Cyert & March defined slack resources as “the difference between total resources needed by the enterprise organization to maintain the status quo and the resources actually possessed by the organization”. There exist different forms of slack resources, such as idle machinery and equipment, surplus cash, extra employees, and semi-finished products in processing.  Technological innovation plays an important role in the success of enterprises and it is a critical factor for them to gain strong short-term market performance and long-term competitive advantage. Due to long cycles, large investments, and high adjustment costs, adequate resource support is essential to ensure the sustainability of innovation activities.
  • 146
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
The Structural Approach of Market Competition
Competition assessment in the economics is based on the theory of market struc-ture. There are two perceptions of industrial competition—dynamical and statical. A statical picture shows—a long-term balance of industrial competition which will exist if the industry would be described as a market entity in perfect competition, having the constant technology [9]. Distorted competition arises from the advantages of various processes, economies of capacity, lower prices, which support greater market power of one against its competitors. Robust approach states—that the market is often imperfect. Distorted competition arises from modern innovation, product derivations, technological advances in production processes. In addi-tion, monopoly situation is volatile because of creative destruction. Whereas factors connected with technological progress and firm innovation are difficult to detect from a dynamic point of view.
  • 164
  • 27 Jan 2022
Topic Review
The Macroeconomic Effects of a Pandemic in Pakistan
The eruption of COVID-19 has jolted the national and international economy. Pakistan is included, causing millions of people to stay at home, lose their jobs, and suspend or end business operations. Unemployment in Pakistan has reached nearly 25 million people, driving many towards conditions of hunger and poverty as the major economic damage in several sectors is anticipated at around PKR 1.3 trillion. The hardest-affected sectors comprise industries such as tourism and travel, financial markets, entertainment, manufacturing, etc., having a devastating effect on gross domestic product (GDP). It is mainly daily-wage earners and people running small businesses that have been seriously exploited and subjected to a curfew-like situation. 
  • 196
  • 25 Jan 2022
Topic Review
The Financial Outcome of Successful Green Innovation
Climate change, pollution of the environment, and the consecutive challenges for the 21st century have been increasingly recognized by governments, policymakers, and industry over the last decade. It is therefore vital to transition from environment- and resource-intensive trajectories to more sustainable growth paths for the global economy. This also requires corporate environmentalism and (green) technological innovation. To realize sustainable growth paths, green innovation and technology diffusion must be financially and commercially attractive to convince corporate decision makers to introduce environmentalism. The current strand of literature on the financial attractiveness of green innovation can be divided into two parts: the traditional view follows Friedman and considers green innovation as firm-value decreasing, while the Porter hypothesis argues that environmental policies, adoption of corporate environmentalism, and green innovation increase profits of firms by reducing costs and increasing revenues. In fact, prior studies provide empirical evidence to support the Porter hypothesis for many cases. Therefore, scholars have suggested intervention by governments to overcome these barriers. Government organizations included environmental issues into their agendas for multiple decades now. As a result, different forms of intervention were introduced, ranging from regulatory (e.g., forced shutdowns or investments) to market-based, economic measures (e.g., supply-push and demand-pull). One of the most important green growth strategies from a governmental perspective is the development of green technologies through appropriate innovation to stimulate corporate environmentalism, particularly green innovation policies.
  • 132
  • 11 Apr 2022
Topic Review
The Evolution of U.S. Equity Trading Venues
The modern U.S. equity market has been evolving from floor trading by brokers who read the ticker tape and bid on offer to purely electric trading coded into computer algorithms. This entry briefly overviews the evolution of the U.S. equity venues and discusses the consequences of market fragmentation from theoretical and empirical perspectives.
  • 153
  • 01 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Taxing the Digital Economy through Consumption Taxes
Owing to the Fourth Industrial revolution and digital transformation, the digital economy has grown substantially globally and in Africa. Despite the positive outcomes such as advancements in technology, improvements in business models and expansion in digital financial inclusion, negative implications include the erosion of tax bases due to the invisible nature of digital transactions. Although the digital economy is one of the biggest and quickest growing sectors in the African continent, its contribution to tax revenue is negligible. Developed and developing countries are grappling to find effective ways of mobilizing revenues from this hard to tax economy. African countries have turned to digital services taxes, value added taxes and withholding taxes in a bid to collect revenue from the digital economy to broaden their tax bases. There is intense debate among policymakers, governments, development bodies and tax bodies on the most effective way to tax the digital economy.
  • 46
  • 28 Sep 2022
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