Topic Review
Carbon Emissions and Agency Costs in Firm Performance
Carbon emissions and agency costs can have an impact on firms’ financial performance. Firms with higher carbon emissions experience lower performance as the market reacts negatively. Further, firms with both higher carbon emissions and higher agency costs have lower performance. 
  • 160
  • 05 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Carbon Emissions and Firm Performance
: This paper examines the effects of carbon emissions on the accounting and market-based performance of financial and non-financial firms in emerging economies. Data for 104 financial and 328 non-financial firms constituting 2591 observations operating in 22 emerging economies were collected from the Datastream database for the period 2011–2020. We applied OLS and 2SLS regression techniques to analyze the data. The results show that financial firms emit less carbon than their non-financial counterparts. The results further show that carbon emissions reduce firms’ return on equity, Tobin’s Q, Z-score, and credit rating. Our findings remain robust in different estimation techniques and alternative proxies of performance. Our results have some important policy implications for emerging economies.
  • 304
  • 17 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Chicago Stock Exchange
The Chicago Stock Exchange (CHX) is a stock exchange in Chicago , Illinois, US. The exchange is a national securities exchange and self-regulatory organization, which operates under the oversight of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The Chicago Stock Exchange is currently located at 440 South LaSalle Street (FOUR40). Founded on March 21, 1882, the Chicago Stock Exchange merged with the regional stock exchanges St. Louis Stock Exchange, Cleveland Stock Exchange and Minneapolis-St. Paul Stock Exchange to form the Midwest Stock Exchange in 1949. In 1959, the New Orleans Stock Exchange became part of the Midwest Stock Exchange, and in the early 1960s the Midwest Stock Exchange Service Corporation was established to provide centralized accounting for member firms. In 1993 it changed its name back to the Chicago Stock Exchange.
  • 159
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Chief Financial Officer Compensation and Corporate Sustainability
CFO compensation describes the remuneration of CFOs, which can be short-term and long-term oriented, cash based and non-cash based, and fixed or variable. The design of CFO compensation is crucial to aligning the interests of the CFO with the financial and non-financial interests of other stakeholders, making it an important corporate governance tool. 
  • 287
  • 15 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Circular Economy and Financial Aspects
The barriers faced by companies adopting the circular economy in relation to financial performance are defined by (i) the size of the business and the initial investment cost, (ii) difficulties for micro and small companies, (iii) to a more complex structuring of the business, and (iv) greater exposure to risk, as the circular economy is a new concept and is and not as representative as a linear standard system. Thus, there is a need for accounting control of process costs, since resources for different products can have different life cycles. Therefore, factors like financial incentives, subsidies for the projects, and the awareness of nations, companies and consumers are of great importance for the evolution of the circular economy.
  • 217
  • 23 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Click Farm
A click farm is a form of click fraud, where a large group of low-paid workers are hired to click on paid advertising links for the click fraudster (click farm master or click farmer). The workers click the links, surf the target website for a period of time, and possibly sign up for newsletters prior to clicking another link. For many of these workers, clicking on enough ads per day may increase their revenue substantially and may also be an alternative to other types of work. It is extremely difficult for an automated filter to detect this simulated traffic as fake because the visitor behavior appears exactly the same as that of an actual legitimate visitor. Fake likes generating from click farms are essentially different from those arising from bots where computer programs are written by software experts. To deal with such issues, companies such as Facebook are trying to create algorithms that seek to wipe out accounts with unusual activity (e.g. liking too many pages in a short period of time).
  • 101
  • 12 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Climate-Related Prudential Risks
Climate change creates financial risks to the safety and soundness of banks, insurers and the wider financial system, posing a significant threat to the stability of the financial system. Climate-related financial and sustainability risks are already starting to crystallise and have the potential to increase substantially in the future. For instance, physical risks that arise from increasing the severity and frequency of climate and weather-related events may lead to a reduction in asset values, a fall in profitability and an increase in the cost of settling underwriting losses for insurers. On the other hand, adjustment towards a carbon-neutral economy may prompt a reassessment of asset values, a fluctuation in energy prices, and a deterioration of the creditworthiness of borrowers, potentially leading to credit losses. While there is a pressing need for central banks, regulators and financial institutions to accelerate their capacity to assess and manage such financial risks that may result from climate change, academic research will be a key impetus to drive and support the ongoing efforts of the financial sector and the regulatory bodies in building capacity to address these risks. 
  • 681
  • 15 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Co-Created Values in Crowdfunding for Enterprises
Crowdfunding (CF) is considered to be an innovative source of funding, and research into its effects on CF participants is being conducted from many different angles. Crowdfunding not only presents an alternative financing option, but also affects all perspectives relevant to value creation. As compared to the existing literature, this analysis is the most comprehensive take on the importance of crowdfunding for increasing the value of small and medium enterprises to date, thus offering a material contribution to the fuller understanding of crowdfunding from the financial standpoint, as well as pointing to the importance of crowdfunding as a financing method influencing sustainable decision-making by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). 
  • 96
  • 15 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Concept of the Robo-Advisor with Digital Twin
The term “digital twin” (DT) refers to a digital representation of an individual that has the capability of integrating any digital data with virtually real-time data and generating advanced analytics for feedback, recommendation, and alternative solutions for users. 
  • 415
  • 11 May 2022
Topic Review
Conceptualization of the Migration Phenomenon
The migration process has become particularly important for Romania in the last 20 years, and its socio-economic, political and cultural effects affect the Romanian state. That is why flexible policies are needed in order to be coherent, to have as main purpose keeping specialists in the country in certain basic economic fields, as well to implement measures to determine the return of specialists and students who have left to study abroad.
  • 299
  • 14 Apr 2022
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