Topic Review
Neuroimaging-Based Assessments of OXPHOS-Related Complexes and Metabolites
In post-mortem studies, a significant dysregulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes was observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). These findings strongly implicate that mitochondrial dysfunction-linked alterations in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) can be considered a highly relevant molecular mechanism in different NDs. Histopathological examinations revealed decreased complex I level, preferentially in the substantia nigra (SN), in patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). These findings are consistent with the fact that inhibitors of complex I (such as the environmental toxins MPTP or rotenone) can cause parkinsonism in animal models and humans. Huntington’s disease (HD) has been associated with defects of complex II and, to a lesser extent, complex IV. The chronic administration of the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid causes an HD-like phenotype in rodent and non-human primate models. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), widespread cortical complex IV defects were identified in post-mortem brain tissue. The in vivo neuroimaging-based assessment of electron transport chain (ETC)-related metabolite levels could thus help elucidate the complex role of OXPHOS disturbances in NDs.
  • 44
  • 07 Jul 2022
Topic Review
The Biological Basis for Antioxidant Therapy
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a class of highly reactive free radicals, such as hydroxyl radical (•OH), the superoxide radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The high intracellular ROS level-induced oxidative stress leads to the upregulation of antioxidant capacity to maintain redox homeostasis by metabolic rerouting or activation of genetic programs.
  • 51
  • 06 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Sedentary Lifestyle and Masticatory Dysfunction
Unhealthy brain aging and cognitive decline associate with a sedentary lifestyle and, at a cellular level, this is accompanied by astrocyte hypertrophy, myelin dysregulation, neurovascular dysfunction and the impairment of neurogenesis.
  • 51
  • 28 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Post-Concussion Syndrome and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Traumatic brain injury is a significant public health issue and represents the main contributor to death and disability globally among all trauma-related injuries. Martial arts practitioners, military veterans, athletes, victims of physical abuse, and epileptic patients could be affected by the consequences of repetitive mild head injuries (RMHI) that do not resume only to short-termed traumatic brain injuries (TBI) effects but also to more complex and time-extended outcomes, such as post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). 
  • 150
  • 13 May 2022
Topic Review
The Subconjunctival Space of the Eye
The subconjunctival space is the hydrophilic, fluid-filled space between the conjunctiva and the sclera. Additionally, the subconjunctival space has access to all the blood vessels found in the conjunctiva, which can help to further distribute substances throughout the whole eye. The subconjunctival space is located superior to the cornea and optimally located to distribute drugs to several different parts of the eye through minimally invasive means while limiting the development of scar tissue.
  • 130
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
The Intravitreal Space of the Eye
The intravitreal space comprises the majority of the eye’s volume and is located behind the lens of the eye. The vitreous chamber of the eye is mostly filled with a gel-like solution called the vitreous body. The vitreous body is 98.5–99.7% water containing salt soluble proteins and hyaluronic acid.
  • 71
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
The Subretinal Space of the Eye
The subretinal space is located between the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the photoreceptive cells. The majority of the retina is a delicate matrix of photoreceptive cells and their support network which are responsible for human vision. These cells are separated from the cornea by a layer of pigment epithelium. The RPE has tight junctions, effectively insulating the inside of the retina from systemic circulation; the contents of the retina can then be controlled by transcellular transport.
  • 90
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Documented Skeletal Collections in the United States
In the US, documented skeletal collections are a collective of human skeletons that originated (mostly) from body donations, human taphonomy facilities (e.g., the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection), and anatomical dissections (e.g., Robert J. Terry Anatomical Collection). These collections are a major asset in the testing and development of methods used to infer the biological profile of human remains.
  • 202
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Fluorescence Imaging for Biomedical Applications
Molecular imaging offers the possibility to investigate biological and biochemical processes non-invasively and to obtain information on both anatomy and dysfunctions. Based on the data obtained, a fundamental understanding of various disease processes can be derived and treatment strategies can be planned. In this context, methods that combine several modalities in one probe are increasingly being used. Due to the comparably high sensitivity and provided complementary information, the combination of nuclear and optical probes has taken on a special significance.
  • 88
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Biomechanical Factors in Track and Field Sprint Start
In athletics sprint events, the block start performance can be fundamental to the outcome of a race. Several biomechanical determinants of sprinters have been identified. In the “Set” position, an anthropometry-driven block setting facilitating the hip extension and a rear leg contribution should be encouraged. At the push-off, a rapid extension of both hips and greater force production seems to be important. After block exiting, shorter flight times and greater propulsive forces are the main features of best sprinters. 
  • 148
  • 13 Apr 2022
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