Topic Review
Humans and the Olfactory Environment
The sense of smell is underappreciated. Though less crucial than sight or hearing, it tells about what people neither see nor hear. It also enriches sight and hearing with biochemical data on objects of interest. Finally, by producing disgust or pleasure, it helps decide whether such objects should be avoided or approached. Humans have remade their olfactory environment, typically by making it more pleasant-smelling, just as they have remade their visual environment to make it more pleasant-looking. But the process has not been one-way. By remaking the environment, people have ended up remaking ourselves. On the one hand, humans have been creating more and more of their world; on the other hand, this human-created world has been modifying their genomes via natural selection.  
  • 77
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Historical Ecology in Brazil
The term “Historical Ecology” has been defined by two different research scholarships: (1) as a field that draws upon diverse evidence to trace complex, long-term relationships between humanity and Earth; and (2) as a field related to evolutionary ecology and the use of phylogenetic systematics, which may or may not involve anthropogenic agency. Here we embrace and refer to the first definition. Hence, Historical Ecology is a multidisciplinary field (or research program) that investigates human-environment relationships resulting in continuous spatial, environmental, historical, and cultural interactions. Its primary focus is the physical evidence etched in the landscape. The use of landscape as an analytical framework and spatial unit is valuable and widely used in Historical Ecology.  
  • 195
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review
Documented Skeletal Collections in the United States
In the US, documented skeletal collections are a collective of human skeletons that originated (mostly) from body donations, human taphonomy facilities (e.g., the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection), and anatomical dissections (e.g., Robert J. Terry Anatomical Collection). These collections are a major asset in the testing and development of methods used to infer the biological profile of human remains.
  • 258
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Satisfaction Factors That Predict Loyalty in Ecotourism
Recently, foreign tourists have revealed a growing interest for natural environment enjoyment. Results show three satisfaction factors in ecotourism: “nature and culture”, “infrastructure”, and “service”, where “nature and culture” was the most influential predictor of tourists’ loyalty. The entry also found a positive correlation between satisfaction and loyalty in ecotourism. 
  • 107
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Estimation of Sex in the Portuguese Identified Collections
The estimation of biological sex, a parameter of critical importance in the identification of unidentified skeletal remains both in contemporary forensic contexts and bioarcheological studies of past societies. Sex pertains to the biological and/or genetic attributes of an individual, and according to which it is classified as female, male or intersex. The conventional anthropological workflow for the evaluation of a biological profile—i.e., sex, ancestry, age at death and stature—often begins with sex assessment, as the analyses of age at death and stature are sex-contingent. The estimation of sex in skeletal remains depends on the identification and evaluation of the phenotypic differences between the skeletons of males and females. Differences in size and shape are unequally expressed throughout the skeleton, and the pelvis is generally considered the most dimorphic skeletal region.
  • 106
  • 06 Apr 2022
Topic Review
The Lockean Proviso and Orbital Sustainability
Over the last decades, human have witnessed the gradual commercialization of the Earth orbit. The exponential development of private space activities makes this distant natural field, with the overcoming of technological difficulties, more and more hospitable to free initiative and entrepreneurship. However, the orbital space is considered global commons. Through the imaginary case method, researchers intend to ponder on possible ways to legally regulate the exploitation of the orbital space, namely the application of Pigouvian taxes, on the sustainability of the orbital environment, through ethical considerations originating from the application of the Lockean proviso. 
  • 87
  • 06 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Heritage Tourism in Mexico
Tourism activity in general, with the heritage tourism sector in particular, represented the second inflow of foreign currency to Mexico in 2019 (pre-pandemic), with more than USD 24 million. According to local polls, the main purpose of travel is leisure. However, more than half of tourists (local and foreigner) who visit Mexico enjoy/visit an archaeological site, a museum, and/or a local community.
  • 244
  • 01 Apr 2022
Topic Review
High-Intensity Interval Training
High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) could have effects on inflammatory biomarkers, based on the investigation conducted of an anti-inflammatory nature, provided that its characteristics are able to trigger the necessary impact to do so.
  • 110
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Food-Specific Inhibition Training for Food Devaluation
Food-specific inhibition training could lead to food devaluation which, in turn, may help people to regulate their eating behavior. The effects of training on participants’ food evaluation differed according to the type of evaluation; food-specific inhibition training significantly decreased participants’ explicit food evaluation, but not their implicit food evaluation. 
  • 103
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Circum-Saharan Prehistory through the Lens of mtDNA Diversity
African history has been significantly influenced by the Sahara, which has represented a barrier for migrations of all living beings, including humans. Major exceptions were the gene flow events that took place between North African and sub-Saharan populations during the so-called African Humid Periods, especially in the Early Holocene (11.5 to 5.5 thousand years ago), and more recently in connection with trans-Saharan commercial routes. The research indicates that maternal gene flow must have been important in this circum-Saharan space, not only within North Africa and the Sahel/Savannah belt but also between these two regions.
  • 136
  • 25 Mar 2022
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