Topic Review
Geographic Tongue
Geographic tongue, also known by several other terms, is a condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface. It is a common condition, affecting approximately 2–3% of the general population. It is characterized by areas of smooth, red depapillation (loss of lingual papillae) which migrate over time. The name comes from the map-like appearance of the tongue, with the patches resembling the islands of an archipelago. The cause is unknown, but the condition is entirely benign (importantly, it does not represent oral cancer), and there is no curative treatment. Uncommonly, geographic tongue may cause a burning sensation on the tongue, for which various treatments have been described with little formal evidence of efficacy.
  • 28
  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Inner Ear Injury and Glucocorticoid Therapy
Hearing loss represents a significant handicap that gravely impacts the quality of life. Normal hearing function depends on the mechanical and physiological integrity of the middle and inner ear structures and their associated nervous system. The middle ear is composed of the tympanic membrane and the ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes. Accordingly, middle ear pathologies primarily involve the mechanical compromise of the eardrum or its associated ossicles due to, for example, an infection, a fluid accumulation or trauma. Corticosteroid therapy has been mainly effective in stopping, decreasing or correcting an auditory impairment in numerous other etiologies of hearing loss, a steroid therapy has also been encouraged in the field of surgical inner ear interventions.
  • 72
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Treatment Options in Early Stage of Oropharyngeal Cancer
The traditional primary treatment modality of oropharyngeal carcinomasquamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) at early stages is intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS) has offered as an alternative, less invasive surgical option. Patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive OPSCC have distinct staging with better overall survival in comparison with HPV-negative OPSCC patients. The head–neck surgeon has to know the role of TORS in HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC and the ongoing trials that will influence its future implementation. The feasibility of this treatment, the outcomes ensured, and the side effects are key factors to consider for each patient. 
  • 44
  • 16 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a well-studied phenomenon in embryology and occurs during the morphogenesis of organs. It is described as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) type I. The molecular procedure of EMT is also reprogrammed in the healing of wounds and the pathological fibrosis of organs, known as EMT type II. EMT III is the type that is implicated in tumor metastasis. While initially focusing on the abolishment of epithelial and acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics by the tumor cells, the idea behind EMT currently incorporates all the phenotypic and molecular characteristics that enable tumor cells to migrate, survive, and proliferate in distant tissues. In other words, it is a complete model of molecular processes signaled by specific factors called inducers. This model progresses via cross-linked molecular pathways, concluding with functional and structural modifications that make the carcinoma cells metastatic. These modifications are mediated by molecules known as the effectors of EMT.
  • 47
  • 16 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Vector-Borne Tularemia
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the highly invasive bacterium Francisella tularensis. It is transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals or by vectors, such as ticks, mosquitos, and flies.
  • 69
  • 26 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Intraoperative In Vivo Imaging Modalities in HNC Status
Surgical margin status is one of the strongest prognosticators in predicting patient outcomes in head and neck cancer, yet head and neck surgeons continue to face challenges in the accurate detection of these margins with the current standard of care. Advances in intraoperative imaging techniques have been developed to address these limitations in determining cancer margins in head and neck cancer (HNC). These modalities include optical coherence tomography, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence, and fluorescent-tagged probe techniques. Studies have demonstrated encouraging sensitivity and specificity in detecting HNC margins and cancer from normal tissue. 
  • 55
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Circulating Tumor DNA in Head and Neck Cancer
Head and neck cancer remains a challenging and deadly disease as it is often identified in more advanced stages due to limitations in screening and surveillance. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has the potential to improve outcomes by enhancing screening, early diagnosis, and surveillance in head and neck cancer patients.
  • 83
  • 14 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Pathophysiology, Immunosenescence and Inflammaging of Presbyacusis
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), or presbyacusis, is a type of sensorineural hearing loss that primarily affects the elderly. However, the age of onset, rate of decline, and severity of hearing loss vary widely. As a result of ageing, the immune system can become defective, leading to the accumulation of unresolved inflammatory processes in the body. Various stimuli can sustain inflammaging, including pathogens, cell debris, nutrients, and gut microbiota.
  • 79
  • 12 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Clinical Use of the Suppression Head Impulse Paradigm
he instrumental assessment of the vestibular system has made significant progress. Two protocol tests are available in the clinical practice to evaluate the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) function through the use of the video head impulse test (vHIT): the head impulse paradigm (HIMP) and the suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP). These tests can be used alone (in the case of HIMP) or in combination to test semicircular canal function and to determine the residual VOR gain and the visuo-vestibular interaction. The suppression head impulse paradigm (SHIMP) has a potential clinical application in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy. The SHIMP could be a useful tool to diagnose a VOR alteration in patients with unilateral and bilateral vestibulopathy. Further well-designed studies are needed to evaluate if the new paradigm could replace the HIMP in both the acute and chronic phases of vestibulopathy.
  • 77
  • 11 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Methodologies for ctDNA Detection
Circulating extracellular DNA that is tumor-derived, referred to as ctDNA, often adheres to the surfaces of leukocytes and erythrocytes. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has the potential to improve outcomes by enhancing screening, early diagnosis, and surveillance in head and neck cancer patients. 
  • 79
  • 07 Jul 2022
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