Topic Review
Warthin Tumor
Warthin tumor (WT) is a benign salivary gland tumor composed of oncocytic epithelial cells lining ductal, papillary, and cystic structures in a lymphoid stroma. Is the second most common salivary gland tumor. WT commonly affect individuals in ther sixth to seventh decade and have a link to cigarette smoking. 
  • 250
  • 20 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Vector-Borne Tularemia
Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the highly invasive bacterium Francisella tularensis. It is transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected animals or by vectors, such as ticks, mosquitos, and flies.
  • 71
  • 26 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Treatment Options in Early Stage of Oropharyngeal Cancer
The traditional primary treatment modality of oropharyngeal carcinomasquamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) at early stages is intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS) has offered as an alternative, less invasive surgical option. Patients with human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive OPSCC have distinct staging with better overall survival in comparison with HPV-negative OPSCC patients. The head–neck surgeon has to know the role of TORS in HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC and the ongoing trials that will influence its future implementation. The feasibility of this treatment, the outcomes ensured, and the side effects are key factors to consider for each patient. 
  • 47
  • 16 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Otorhinolaryngology enrolls head and neck surgery in various tissues such as ear, nose, and throat (ENT) that govern different activities such as hearing, breathing, smelling, production of vocal sounds, the balance, deglutition, facial animation, air filtration and humidification, and articulation during speech, while absence of these functions can lead to high morbidity and even mortality. Conventional therapies for head and neck damaged tissues include grafts, transplants, and artificial materials, but grafts have limited availability and cause morbidity in the donor site. To improve these limitations, regenerative medicine, as a novel and rapidly growing field, has opened a new therapeutic window in otorhinolaryngology by using cell transplantation to target the healing and replacement of injured tissues. There is a high risk of rejection and tumor formation for transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) lack these drawbacks. They have easy expansion and antiapoptotic properties with a wide range of healing and aesthetic functions that make them a novel candidate in otorhinolaryngology for craniofacial defects and diseases and hold immense promise for bone tissue healing; even the tissue sources and types of MSCs, the method of cell introduction and their preparation quality can influence the final outcome in the injured tissue.
  • 192
  • 22 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Surgical Techniques and The Benefits of Cochlear Implantation
As selection criteria for CI are continuously evolving and more patients are eligible for implantation, the preservation of residual hearing is becoming increasingly studied. Sustained trauma to the cochlea during the advancement of the electrode array was identified as a critical factor that can deteriorate residual hearing; therefore, in recent years, increasing attention has been directed towards surgical principles.
  • 103
  • 15 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Sinonasal Inverted Papilloma
Sinonasal inverted papilloma (SNIP) is a benign neoplasm of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and accounts for 0.5–4% of primary nasal tumors.
  • 116
  • 22 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Sex Differences in Hearing Loss
The triad of noise-generated, drug-induced, and age-related hearing loss is the major cause of acquired sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) in modern society. Although these three forms of hearing loss display similar underlying mechanisms, detailed studies have revealed the presence of sex differences in the auditory system both in human and animal models of ASNHL. However, the sexual dimorphism of hearing varies among noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), ototoxicity, and age-related hearing loss (ARHL).
  • 226
  • 09 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Risk Factors for Recurrent Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the commonest peripheral vestibular condition encountered in a neurotology clinic and it accounts for about 20% to 30% of all the vestibular complaints. The mechanism of BPPV has been based on dislodged otoliths that leave the utricle and freely float in the semicircular canals or attach to the cupula, making the labyrinth sensitive to gravitational forces. BPPV is characterized by recurrent and brief vertigo with corresponding nystagmus when extending or turning the neck, getting up or lying down, or rolling over in bed.
  • 163
  • 29 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Rhinitis: Classification, Types, Pathophysiology
Rhinitis describes a pattern of symptoms as a result of nasal inflammation and/or dysfunction of the nasal mucosa. It is an umbrella entity that includes many different subtypes, several of which escape of complete characterization. Rhinitis is considered as a pathologic condition with considerable morbidity and financial burden on health care systems worldwide. Its economic impact is further emphasized by the fact that it represents a risk factor for other conditions such as sinusitis, asthma, learning disabilities, behavioral changes, and psychological impairment. Rhinitis may be associated with many etiologic triggers such as infections, immediate-type allergic responses, inhaled irritants, medications, hormonal disturbances, and neural system dysfunction. 
  • 381
  • 01 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Purines Regulate Cochlear Function in Health and Disease
Purinergic signalling is an intricate system of extracellular receptors, enzymes and transporters that regulates multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes in the mammalian inner ear. ATP release from the secretory tissues of the cochlear lateral wall (stria vascularis) triggers numerous physiological responses by activating P2 receptors in sensory, supporting and neural tissues. Herein, it is presented with evidence for the essential role of P2 receptors in cochlear development, regulation of electrochemical homeostasis, auditory neurotransmission, and adaptation to elevated sound levels. Adenosine receptors have a major role in cochlear injury responses, highlighting their clinical significance as prospective therapeutic targets. Herein, it is postulated that pharmacological manipulation of purinergic receptors, particularly adenosine receptors, represents a promising strategy for the therapeutic management of hearing loss.
  • 9
  • 08 Dec 2022
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