Topic Review
Diagnosis of Reflux and Place of pH Study
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is an inflammatory condition of the upper aerodigestive tract tissues related to direct and indirect effect of gastroduodenal content reflux, which induces morphological changes in the upper aerodigestive tract. The demonstration of pharyngeal reflux events through pH study is an important step in the management of LPR because this is the most effective approach to objective the back flow of gastric content into the pharynx.
  • 136
  • 08 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Rhinitis: Classification, Types, Pathophysiology
Rhinitis describes a pattern of symptoms as a result of nasal inflammation and/or dysfunction of the nasal mucosa. It is an umbrella entity that includes many different subtypes, several of which escape of complete characterization. Rhinitis is considered as a pathologic condition with considerable morbidity and financial burden on health care systems worldwide. Its economic impact is further emphasized by the fact that it represents a risk factor for other conditions such as sinusitis, asthma, learning disabilities, behavioral changes, and psychological impairment. Rhinitis may be associated with many etiologic triggers such as infections, immediate-type allergic responses, inhaled irritants, medications, hormonal disturbances, and neural system dysfunction. 
  • 135
  • 01 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Enduring Controversy of Cervicogenic Vertigo
The idea of cervicogenic vertigo (CV) was proposed nearly a century ago, yet despite considerable scrutiny and research, little progress has been made in clarifying the underlying mechanism of the disease, developing a confirmatory diagnostic test, or devising an appropriately targeted treatment. Given the history of this idea, we offer a review geared towards understanding why so many attempts at clarifying it have failed, with specific comments regarding how CV fits into the broader landscape of positional vertigo syndromes, what a successful diagnostic test might require, and some practical advice on how to approach this in the absence of a diagnostic test.
  • 120
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Otorhinolaryngology enrolls head and neck surgery in various tissues such as ear, nose, and throat (ENT) that govern different activities such as hearing, breathing, smelling, production of vocal sounds, the balance, deglutition, facial animation, air filtration and humidification, and articulation during speech, while absence of these functions can lead to high morbidity and even mortality. Conventional therapies for head and neck damaged tissues include grafts, transplants, and artificial materials, but grafts have limited availability and cause morbidity in the donor site. To improve these limitations, regenerative medicine, as a novel and rapidly growing field, has opened a new therapeutic window in otorhinolaryngology by using cell transplantation to target the healing and replacement of injured tissues. There is a high risk of rejection and tumor formation for transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) lack these drawbacks. They have easy expansion and antiapoptotic properties with a wide range of healing and aesthetic functions that make them a novel candidate in otorhinolaryngology for craniofacial defects and diseases and hold immense promise for bone tissue healing; even the tissue sources and types of MSCs, the method of cell introduction and their preparation quality can influence the final outcome in the injured tissue.
  • 118
  • 22 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Warthin Tumor
Warthin tumor (WT) is a benign salivary gland tumor composed of oncocytic epithelial cells lining ductal, papillary, and cystic structures in a lymphoid stroma. Is the second most common salivary gland tumor. WT commonly affect individuals in ther sixth to seventh decade and have a link to cigarette smoking. 
  • 116
  • 20 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Head and Neck Cancer in Germany
Analysis of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) data of the treatment of head and neck cancer in Germany from 2005 to 2018
  • 115
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Sex Differences in Hearing Loss
The triad of noise-generated, drug-induced, and age-related hearing loss is the major cause of acquired sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) in modern society. Although these three forms of hearing loss display similar underlying mechanisms, detailed studies have revealed the presence of sex differences in the auditory system both in human and animal models of ASNHL. However, the sexual dimorphism of hearing varies among noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), ototoxicity, and age-related hearing loss (ARHL).
  • 114
  • 09 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Myofunctional Therapy in Sleep-Disordered Breathing
Myofunctional therapy (MFT) may have a role in improving muscle tone and alleviating upper airway collapse in sleep-disordered breathing. The purposes of this state-of-the-art review are to first review systematically the current literature on the effectiveness of MFT in treating sleep-disordered breathing and then to provide an overview of the current understanding of patient selection, side effects, type and duration of exercises, guidance of exercise performance, evaluation of results, and how best to promote adherence. PubMed (Medline), the Cochrane Library, and the EMBASE, Scopus and SciELO databases were checked for relevant studies by three authors, and a total of 23 studies were included.
  • 111
  • 03 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Extracellular Vesicles in Head and Neck Surgery
EVs has spread from various medical fields to otorhinolaryngology, as well as head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS). 
  • 109
  • 06 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction
Patients with dysfunction of both vestibular systems of the inner ear experience postural instability and gait disturbances.  This condition is called Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction (BVD). 
  • 107
  • 11 Mar 2022
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