Topic Review
Klebsiella pneumoniae vs. Non-Klebsiella pneumoniae Pyogenic Liver Abscess
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a common global public health problem as it contributes to 13% of intra-abdominal abscesses. With advancements in diagnostic microbiology, imaging technology, improved understanding of sepsis and critical care, and minimally invasive image-guided interventions such as percutaneous drainage (PD), clinical outcomes continue to improve; however, PLA-related mortality remains high, in the range of 10–30%. Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is the leading causative organism for PLA, followed by Escherichia coli (EC). Klebsiella pneumoniae pyogenic liver abscess (KPPLA) is associated with DM and gas formation, possibly impacting clinical outcomes.
  • 69
  • 07 Sep 2022
Topic Review
3D Imaging in Laparoscopic Liver Surgery
Liver resection is recognized worldwide as a potentially curative treatment for patients with primary and secondary malignancies and resectable disease.  Preoperative 3D reconstructions and printing as well as augmented reality can increase the knowledge of the specific anatomy of the case and therefore plan the surgery accordingly and tailor the procedure on the patient. Furthermore, the indocyanine green retention dye is an increasingly used tool that can nowadays improve the precision during laparoscopic hepatectomies, especially when considering anatomical resection. The use of preoperative modern imaging and intraoperative indocyanine green dye are key to successfully perform complex hepatectomies such as laparoscopic parenchymal sparing liver resections.
  • 213
  • 09 Dec 2021
Topic Review
3D-Assisted Acetabular Fracture Surgery
The techniques currently used in 3D-assisted acetabular fracture surgery are 3D printing and visual surgical planning, 3D printing and pre-contouring of implants, and custom-made patient-specific implants. Three-dimensional-assisted surgery compared to conventional surgery reduces operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy usage, and complication rate. Evidence for the improvement of postoperative fracture reduction and physical functioning is limited, because of heterogeneity and varying qualities of the studies.
  • 149
  • 28 Oct 2021
Topic Review
A Smarter Health through Internet of Surgical Things
To systematically study the technological advances in a particular sector, attributed to the utilization of the Internet, the term “Internet of Things” (IoT) was introduced. The present systematic review, aims to present and analyze the modern applications of the IoT within the surgical world. While not strictly defined, IoT describes a network of Internet-based connected things equipped with (embedded) sensing and actuating devices, with data production, processing, and consumption abilities. The utilization of the Internet and IoT in medical practice can take many shapes and forms. Ranging from the awe-inspiring telesurgical procedures to complex AI machine learning applications that aid in medical decision making , to a simple email containing a preoperative CT scan, the Internet of Surgical Things (IoST) is here to stay. 
  • 323
  • 04 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
Compartment syndrome occurs when increased pressure inside a closed anatomical space compromises tissue perfusion. The sudden increase in pressure inside these spaces requires rapid decompression by means of surgical intervention. In the case of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), surgical decompression consists of a laparostomy. 
  • 156
  • 10 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells in Kidney Transplantation
Kidney transplantation (KT) is the gold standard treatment of end-stage renal disease. Among the many peri-operative complications that can jeopardize transplant outcomes, ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) deserves special consideration as it is associated with delayed graft function, acute rejection, and premature transplant loss. Adipose stem/stromal cells (ASCs) possess specific characteristics that could help prevent, reduce, or reverse IRI. 
  • 178
  • 22 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Adult Abdominal Tuberculosis Diagnosis
Tuberculosis is a common systemic infection with the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is primarily found in the lungs and causes caseous inflammation in lung tissue and other organs. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that spreads via the air. Tuberculosis is an endemic disease in developing countries, due to the wide spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), it might represent a problem in developed countries, as well. Only around one-fifth of patients diagnosed with abdominal TB have pulmonary disease. 
  • 189
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Anal Stenosis
Anal stenosis (AS) is defined as anatomical or functional narrowing of the anal canal, which can result from inflammatory bowel diseases, radiation therapy, congenital malformations, or excisional hemorrhoidectomy. The anatomical AS is related to the increased fibrous scar tissue forming, which disables stretching of the anal canal. The leading cause of the anatomical AS is excisional hemorrhoidectomy that is often the chosen treatment for grade III and IV hemorrhoidal disease.
  • 577
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Antibiotic Cement and Spine Surgery
Antibiotic bone cement (ABC) is an effective tool for the prophylaxis and treatment of osteomyelitis due to the controlled, sustained release of local antibiotics. ABC has been proven to be effective in the orthopedic fields of arthroplasty and extremity trauma, but the adoption of ABC in spine surgery is limited. The characteristics of ABC make it an optimal solution for treating vertebral osteomyelitis (VO), a serious complication following spine surgery, typically caused by bacterial and sometimes fungal and parasitic pathogens.
  • 89
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy for Intra-Abdominal Infections
Adequately controlling the source of infection and prescribing appropriately antibiotic therapy are the cornerstones of the management of patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Correctly classifying patients with IAIs is crucial to assessing the severity of their clinical condition and deciding the strategy of the treatment, including a correct empiric antibiotic therapy. Best practices in prescribing antibiotics may impact patient outcomes and the cost of treatment, as well as the risk of “opportunistic” infections such as Clostridioides difficile infection and the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
  • 74
  • 26 Oct 2022
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