Topic Review
Pathophysiology and Clinical Assessment of DFI
In the past 30 years, diabetic foot infections (DFI) have become increasingly prevalent due to the rising incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty percent of diabetes-related hospital admissions in the U.S. are from DFI, which is typically introduced by direct inoculation through a traumatic entry site in an insensate foot.
  • 993
  • 28 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Differential Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common median nerve compression neuropathy. Its symptoms and clinical presentation are well known. However, symptoms at median nerve distribution can also be caused by a proximal problem. Pronator syndrome (PS) and anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS) with their typical characteristics have been thought to explain proximal median nerve problems.
  • 963
  • 27 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Vascularization of the Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is a richly vascularized endocrine gland. It is an uneven organ located in a median position in the antero-lower region of the neck, between the fifth cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra.
  • 959
  • 29 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Complete Mesogastric Excisions Involving Anatomical and Embryological Factors
Surgeries for gastrointestinal tract malignancies are based on the paradigm that we should remove the tumour together with its lymphatic drainage in one block. This concept was initially proposed in rectal surgery and called a total mesorectal excision.
  • 917
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Segmentectomy for Lung Cancer
A lung segmentectomy, a type of sublobar resection, preserves more pulmonary function than is lobectomy. The use of minimally invasive lung segmentectomy for early-stage lung cancer has been increasing. This procedure is associated with technical challenges because (1) it requires a thorough understanding of the complex segmental anatomy that frequently accompanies anomalies, and (2) it is difficult to confirm the location of small tumors during minimally invasive surgery, which makes it difficult to obtain adequate surgical margins. 
  • 917
  • 22 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Extensive Limb Lengthening
Limb lengthening for achondroplasia is controversial. Modern techniques of limb lengthening, using distraction osteogenesis, have been able to add significant length to the lower and upper limbs of children and adults with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The long-term results of these treatments have remained unknown.
  • 870
  • 16 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. It is principally associated with liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. The major risk factors for the development of HCC include viral infections (HBV, HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD,) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment choice is dictated by multiple variables such as tumor burden, liver function, and patient’s health status. Surgical resection, transplantation, ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy are potentially useful treatment strategies. TACE is considered the first-line treatment for patients with intermediate stage HCC. 
  • 844
  • 24 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Oxygen, pH, Lactate, and Metabolism for Wound Treatment
Over time, we have come to recognize a very complex network of physiological changes enabling wound healing. An immunological process allows the body to distinguish damaged cells and begin a cleaning mechanism by separating damaged proteins and cells with matrix metalloproteinases, a complement reaction, and free radicals. A wide variety of cell functions help to rebuild new tissue, dependent on energy provision and oxygen supply. Topically applied lactate can improve this.
  • 843
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Mirizzi Syndrome
Mirizzi syndrome is a rare condition caused by the compression of the common hepatic duct due to stones located in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder, which causes obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tract, what is most commonly presented as jaundice and upper abdominal pain. Mirizzi syndrome occurs approximately in 0.05-4% of patients undergiong cholecystectomy. Prolonged inflammation caused by the stones impacted in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder may lead to advanced stages of Mirizzi syndrome and the formation of a cholecystocholedochal fistula or even a cholecystoenteric fistula. Diagnosis is made upon the symptoms, laboratory results and imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or endoscopic retrograde choleangiopancreatography (ERCP), which is considered as the golden standard. However, the preoperative diagnosis is difficult and a large part of all cases is diagnosed intraoperatively. Management of Mirizzi syndrome is mostly surgical, but early stages of the syndrome can be treated with the use of ERCP.  
  • 801
  • 17 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Rectal Prolapse
Rectal prolapse is a condition that can cause significant social impairment and negatively affects quality of life. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with the aim of restoring the anatomy and correcting the associated functional disorders.
  • 739
  • 28 Jul 2021
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