Topic Review
Extensive Limb Lengthening
Limb lengthening for achondroplasia is controversial. Modern techniques of limb lengthening, using distraction osteogenesis, have been able to add significant length to the lower and upper limbs of children and adults with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia. The long-term results of these treatments have remained unknown.
  • 260
  • 16 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Etiopathogenetic Models on BIA-ALCL
BIA-ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma, CD30 positive, ALK-negative usually discovered after the diagnosis of spontaneous periprosthetic seroma or intracapsular mass around the breast implant.
  • 258
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Mirizzi Syndrome
Mirizzi syndrome is a rare condition caused by the compression of the common hepatic duct due to stones located in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder, which causes obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tract, what is most commonly presented as jaundice and upper abdominal pain. Mirizzi syndrome occurs approximately in 0.05-4% of patients undergiong cholecystectomy. Prolonged inflammation caused by the stones impacted in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder may lead to advanced stages of Mirizzi syndrome and the formation of a cholecystocholedochal fistula or even a cholecystoenteric fistula. Diagnosis is made upon the symptoms, laboratory results and imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or endoscopic retrograde choleangiopancreatography (ERCP), which is considered as the golden standard. However, the preoperative diagnosis is difficult and a large part of all cases is diagnosed intraoperatively. Management of Mirizzi syndrome is mostly surgical, but early stages of the syndrome can be treated with the use of ERCP.  
  • 250
  • 17 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Preoperative Anemia in Vascular Patients
Anemia is a common condition in preoperative period of peripheral arterial disease patients. Anemia has multifactorial causes, including: iron deficiency; vitamin deficiency and inflammation; and chronic kidney disease. Some retrospective researches demonstrated, that preprocedural anemia is a predictor adverse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for vascular disease treatment. These outcomes are increase likelihood of: A) transfusion; B) amputation; C) and major adverse cardiovascular events.It is not clear if preoperative anemia optimization with iron and/or erythropoietin, reduce major adverse outcomes in patients submitted to vascular peripheral surgeries. 
  • 232
  • 04 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Rectal Prolapse
Rectal prolapse is a condition that can cause significant social impairment and negatively affects quality of life. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with the aim of restoring the anatomy and correcting the associated functional disorders.
  • 229
  • 28 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Vascularization of the Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is a richly vascularized endocrine gland. It is an uneven organ located in a median position in the antero-lower region of the neck, between the fifth cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra.
  • 225
  • 29 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Pathophysiology and Clinical Assessment of DFI
In the past 30 years, diabetic foot infections (DFI) have become increasingly prevalent due to the rising incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty percent of diabetes-related hospital admissions in the U.S. are from DFI, which is typically introduced by direct inoculation through a traumatic entry site in an insensate foot.
  • 221
  • 28 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Nanoscalpel for Cancer Treatment
Magnetomechanical therapy is one of the most promising areas in tumor microsurgery. The nanoscalpel can become a tool sufficient for cancer microsurgery. In order to achieve this, It should meet the following requirements: (1) to be nano- or micro-sized; (2) to have affinity and specificity for targets on tumor cells; (3) to have the ability for remote control. This nano- or microscalpel should include at least two components: (1) a physical nanostructure (particle, disk, plate) capable of converting a magnetic moment into a mechanical moment; and (2) a ligand molecule (antibody, aptamer, etc.) that allows the scalpel to accurately target tumor cells. The most suitable structures for nanoscalpel are anisotropic, magnetic micro- or nanodiscs with high saturation magnetization and no remanent magnetization. This type of material would facilitate remote control of the scalpel through a magnetic field. In addition, anisotropy enhances the transmigration of discs to the tumor. Today, four types of magnetic microdiscs are used for tumor destruction: synthetic antiferromagnetic P-SAF (perpendicular) and SAF (planar), vortex Py and three-layer non-magnetic-ferromagnetic-non-magnetic systems with flat quasi-dipole magnetic structures.
  • 219
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Hallux Valgus
Hallux valgus (HV) deformity is a common, potentially debilitating deformity. And evidence with high-quality for the conservative treatments of HV deformity is still required.
  • 212
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
A Smarter Health through Internet of Surgical Things
To systematically study the technological advances in a particular sector, attributed to the utilization of the Internet, the term “Internet of Things” (IoT) was introduced. The present systematic review, aims to present and analyze the modern applications of the IoT within the surgical world. While not strictly defined, IoT describes a network of Internet-based connected things equipped with (embedded) sensing and actuating devices, with data production, processing, and consumption abilities. The utilization of the Internet and IoT in medical practice can take many shapes and forms. Ranging from the awe-inspiring telesurgical procedures to complex AI machine learning applications that aid in medical decision making , to a simple email containing a preoperative CT scan, the Internet of Surgical Things (IoST) is here to stay. 
  • 211
  • 04 Jul 2022
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