Topic Review
Volumetric Muscle Loss
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is the massive wasting of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic events or surgical ablation. This pathological condition exceeds the physiological healing process carried out by the muscle itself, which owns remarkable capacity to restore damages but only when limited in dimensions. Upon VML occurring, the affected area is severely compromised, heavily influencing the affected person’s quality of life. Overall, this condition is often associated with chronic disability, which makes the return to duty of highly specialized professional figures (e.g., military personnel or athletes) almost impossible. The actual treatment for VML is based on surgical conservative treatment followed by physical exercise; nevertheless, the results, in terms of either lost mass and/or functionality recovery, are still poor. On the other hand, the efforts of the scientific community are focusing on reconstructive therapy aiming at muscular tissue void volume replenishment by exploiting biomimetic matrix or artificial tissue implantation. Reconstructing strategies represent a valid option to build new muscular tissue not only to recover damaged muscles, but also to better socket prosthesis in terms of anchorage surfaces and reinnervation substrates for reconstructed mass. 
  • 343
  • 26 May 2021
Topic Review
Breast Implant Illness
Breast implant illness refers to a combination of different symptoms related to breast implant surgery, including fatigue, brain fog, and arthralgias. This malaise occurs after cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgeries, although it has not been proven to be a disease. Complications associated with breast implants include breast pain, capsular contracture, infections, as well as other manifestations specific to breast reconstruction. 
  • 339
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
Azoospermia
Azoospermia (a-, without + –zoo– » Greek zôion, animal + –spermia– » Greek sperma, sperm/seed) is defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
  • 260
  • 04 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Lemongrass Essential Oil
Cymbopogon spp. are fast-growing C4 perennial sedges from the grass family Poaceae and are primarily cultivated for their essential oils. The genus lemongrass comprises about 180 species, such as Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon nardus, and Cymbopogon refractus. Lemongrass (Cymbopogonspp.) oil is a cocktail of various terpenes and terpenoids, out of which the major components belong to cyclic and acyclic monoterpenes. The monoterpenes are derived from geranyl diphosphate (GPP).
  • 250
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. It is principally associated with liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. The major risk factors for the development of HCC include viral infections (HBV, HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD,) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment choice is dictated by multiple variables such as tumor burden, liver function, and patient’s health status. Surgical resection, transplantation, ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy are potentially useful treatment strategies. TACE is considered the first-line treatment for patients with intermediate stage HCC. 
  • 225
  • 24 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Liver Surgery
Major high-risk surgery (HRS) exposes patients to potential perioperative adverse events. Hepatic resection of colorectal metastases can surely be included into the HRS class of operations. Limiting such risks is the main target of the perioperative medicine.
  • 200
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Segmentectomy for Lung Cancer
A lung segmentectomy, a type of sublobar resection, preserves more pulmonary function than is lobectomy. The use of minimally invasive lung segmentectomy for early-stage lung cancer has been increasing. This procedure is associated with technical challenges because (1) it requires a thorough understanding of the complex segmental anatomy that frequently accompanies anomalies, and (2) it is difficult to confirm the location of small tumors during minimally invasive surgery, which makes it difficult to obtain adequate surgical margins. 
  • 199
  • 22 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Complete Mesogastric Excisions Involving Anatomical and Embryological Factors
Surgeries for gastrointestinal tract malignancies are based on the paradigm that we should remove the tumour together with its lymphatic drainage in one block. This concept was initially proposed in rectal surgery and called a total mesorectal excision.
  • 199
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Regenerative Treatment for Osteoarthritis Disease
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating disorder causing pain and gradual degeneration of weight-bearing joints with detrimental effects on cartilage volume as well as cartilage damage, generating inflammation in the joint structure. The etiology of OA is multifactorial. Currently, therapies are mainly addressing the physical and occupational aspects of osteoarthritis using pharmacologic pain treatment and/or surgery to manage the symptomatology of the disease with no specific regard to disease progression or prevention.
  • 195
  • 14 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Mirizzi Syndrome
Mirizzi syndrome is a rare condition caused by the compression of the common hepatic duct due to stones located in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder, which causes obstruction of the extrahepatic biliary tract, what is most commonly presented as jaundice and upper abdominal pain. Mirizzi syndrome occurs approximately in 0.05-4% of patients undergiong cholecystectomy. Prolonged inflammation caused by the stones impacted in the cystic duct or the neck of the gallbladder may lead to advanced stages of Mirizzi syndrome and the formation of a cholecystocholedochal fistula or even a cholecystoenteric fistula. Diagnosis is made upon the symptoms, laboratory results and imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or endoscopic retrograde choleangiopancreatography (ERCP), which is considered as the golden standard. However, the preoperative diagnosis is difficult and a large part of all cases is diagnosed intraoperatively. Management of Mirizzi syndrome is mostly surgical, but early stages of the syndrome can be treated with the use of ERCP.  
  • 183
  • 17 Sep 2021
  • Page
  • of
  • 11
Top
Feedback