Topic Review
Systemic Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Maxillofacial Trauma
Infection after maxillofacial trauma remains an important complication, with a significant socio-economic impact. While consensus exists that systemic antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the risk of infection in the management of maxillofacial fractures, the type, and duration remain controversial. 
  • 223
  • 22 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Surgical Treatment for Grade C Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a troublesome complication after pancreatic surgeries, and grade C POPF is the most serious situation among pancreatic fistulas. The incidence of grade C POPF varies from less than 1% to greater than 9%, with an extremely high postoperative mortality rate of 25.7%. The patients with grade C POPF finally undergo surgery with a poor prognosis after various failed conservative treatments. Although various surgical and perioperative attempts have been made to reduce the incidence of grade C POPF, the rates of this costly complication have not been significantly diminished. Hearteningly, several related studies have found that intra-abdominal infection from intestinal flora could promote the development of grade C POPF, which would help physicians to better prevent this complication.
  • 210
  • 03 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Surgical Strategies for Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Resection
Among primary liver cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common. Surgical resection and liver transplantation both represent potentially curative treatments not only in the case of the first occurrence, but also in those cases of disease recurrence if a proper selection of patients is performed ahead. Incidentally, the type and the time of relapse carry important weight on patient prognosis and overall survival. For these cases, proper management has still not been exactly defined.
  • 152
  • 11 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Surgical Management of Retroperitoneal Sarcoma
Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). Surgery should be performed by a surgical oncologist with sub-specialization in this disease and in the context of a multidisciplinary team of sarcoma specialists. For primary RPS, the goal of surgery is to achieve the complete en bloc resection of the tumor along with involved organs and structures to maximize the clearance of the disease. The extent of resection also needs to consider the risk of complications.
  • 87
  • 05 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Surgical Management of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours (pNETs)
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) are a group of rare neoplasms with an incidence of 1–2/100,000 inhabitants/year. They represent 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms and are characterized by a great heterogeneity according to their genetic or sporadic origin, their functional or non-functional character, their degree of locoregional or systemic invasion and their single or multiple localization. The reference curative treatment is surgical resection of the pancreatic tumor in specialized high-volume centres, after a multidisciplinary discussion involving surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and pathologists.
  • 320
  • 14 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Surgery in Autoimmune Pancreatitis
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first described as a clinical entity in 1961 by Sarles et al. who described a type of sclerosing pancreatitis associated with hypergammaglobulinemia.
  • 128
  • 06 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are dislodged from the primary tumor into the bloodstream, travel within the bloodstream to distant organs, and finally extravasate and proliferate as epithelial metastatic deposits.  In surgery for malignancies, the surgical manipulation of tumors and tissues around the tumor may lead to the release of CTCs into the bloodstream. The non-touch isolation technique (NTIT) has been advocated to prevent the release of CTCs during surgery. The concept of NTIT is the prevention of intraoperative increment of CTCs from the primary tumor by the early blockade of outflow vessels, and ‘pulmonary vein (PV)-first lobectomy’ during surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) corresponds to this technique. 
  • 199
  • 16 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Status and Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Dissection
Despite its decreasing incidence, gastric cancer remains an important global healthcare problem due to its overall high prevalence and high mortality rate. Since the Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) and Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte contre le Cancer (FNLCC)/ Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive (FFCD) trials, the neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been recommended throughout Europe in gastric cancer. Potential benefits of preoperative treatments include a higher rate of R0 resection achieved by downstaging the primary tumor, a likely effect on micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in the lymph nodes, and, as a result, improved cancer-related survival. Nevertheless, distortion of anatomical planes of dissection, interstitial fibrosis, and sclerotic tissue changes may increase surgical difficulty. The collection of at least twenty-five lymph nodes after neoadjuvant therapy would seem to ensure removal of undetectable node metastasis and reduce the likelihood of locoregional recurrence. 
  • 88
  • 15 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Speed_Bump_Sign as a Diagnostic Tool for Acute Appendicitis
The ‘speed bump sign’ is a clinical symptom characterised by aggravated abdominal pain while driving over speed bumps. The speed bump sign is a useful ‘rule-out’ test for diagnosing acute appendicitis. With good accessibility, the speed bump sign may be added as a routine part of taking the history of patients with abdominal pain.
  • 252
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Sinistral Portal Hypertension after Pancreaticoduodenectomy
To achieve curative resection for pancreatic cancer during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), extensive portal vein (PV) resection, including porto-mesenterico-splenic confluence (PMSC), may sometimes be necessary if the tumor is close to the portal venous system. Recently, this extended resection has been widely accepted in high-volume centers for pancreatic resection due to its favorable outcomes compared with non-operative treatment. However, in patients with long-term survival, sinistral portal hypertension (SPH) occurs as a late-onset postoperative complication. These patients present gastrointestinal varices due to congested venous flow from the spleen, which may cause critical variceal bleeding.
  • 302
  • 02 Nov 2021
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