Topic Review
Preparing for and Not Waiting for Surgery
Cancer surgery is an essential treatment strategy but can disrupt patients’ physical and psychological health. Perioperative medicine is a growing speciality that aims to improve clinical outcome by preparing patients for the stress associated with surgery. Preparation should begin at contemplation of surgery, with universal screening for established risk factors, physical fitness, nutritional status, psychological health, and, where applicable, frailty and cognitive function. 
  • 224
  • 23 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Surgical Management of Gastroesophageal Junction Adenocarcinoma
Gastroesophageal (GE) junction adenocarcinoma is an aggressive malignancy of growing incidence and is associated with public health issues such as obesity and GERD. Management has evolved over the last two decades to incorporate a multidisciplinary approach, including endoscopic intervention, neoadjuvant chemotherapy/chemoradiation, and open or minimally invasive surgical approaches. Surgical approaches include esophagectomy, total gastrectomy, and, more recently, proximal gastrectomy. 
  • 128
  • 21 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Gut Microbiome and Colorectal Cancer Development
Traditionally considered a disease common in the older population, colorectal cancer is increasing in incidence among younger demographics. Evidence suggests that populational- and generational-level shifts in the composition of the human gut microbiome may be tied to the recent trends in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. 
  • 95
  • 18 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Historical Development of Durable Ventricular Assist Devices
Heart transplantation is  the most effective treatment for end-stage heart failure; however, the shortage in donor hearts constrains the undertaking of transplantation. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) technology has made rapid progress, providing diverse therapeutic options and alleviating the dilemma of donor heart shortage. The ventricular assist device (VAD), as an important category of MCS, demonstrates promising applications in bridging heart transplantation, destination therapy, and bridge-to-decision. VADs can be categorized as durable VADs (dVADs) and temporary VADs (tVADs), according to the duration of assistance. With the technological advancement and clinical application experience accumulated, VADs have been developed in biocompatible, lightweight, bionic, and intelligent ways.
  • 220
  • 17 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis
In the multimodal strategy context, to implement healthcare-associated infection prevention, bundles are one of the most commonly used methods to adapt guidelines in the local context and transfer best practices into routine clinical care. One of the most important measures to prevent surgical site infections is surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP).
  • 224
  • 02 Feb 2024
Topic Review
The Rationale of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Treatment
Peritoneal metastases (PM) are observed in approximately 8% of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, either synchronously or metachronously during follow-up. PM often manifests as the sole site of metastasis. PM is associated with a poor prognosis and typically shows resistance to systemic chemotherapy. Consequently, there has been a search for alternative treatment strategies. For intraperitoneal (IP) therapy to exhibit promise, it either needed to be combined with the removal of larger tumor nodules during cytoreductive surgery or administered as repeated intermittent treatments over an extended duration to affect macroscopic tumor nodules. Cytoreductive surgery, with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treatment as an adjunct, emerged as a solution for the former situation.
  • 132
  • 31 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be a useful tool in the management of disease processes such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as treatment decisions are often complex and multifaceted. AI applications in medicine are expanding with the ongoing advances in AI including more sophisticated machine learning and deep learning processes.
  • 173
  • 25 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Pre-Processing of Signals of Wearable Sensors
Surgery is a common first-line treatment for many types of disease, including cancer. Mortality rates after major abdominal surgery have seen significant decreases whilst postoperative complications remain a frequent occurrence. Preoperative assessment tools are used to support patient risk stratification but do not always provide a precise and accessible assessment. Wearable sensors (WS) provide an accessible alternative that offers continuous monitoring in a non-clinical setting. Pre-processing involves all changes to data that are made in order to prepare the data for analysis. Pre-processing can be the most vital stage in data processing and has a large impact on the inferences that can be made from a data set.
  • 136
  • 24 Jan 2024
Biography
Igor A. Kryvoruchko
Professor Dr. Igor A. Kryvoruchko was born on January 18, 1960. After completing his studies at Kharkiv Medical Institute in 1983, Professor started his medical career as a specialist in surgery. From 1983 to 2004 he worked as a surgeon-researcher and a vice-director at the Institute of General and Urgent Surgery named after V.T. Zaitsev of the National Academy of Medical Sciences, Ukraine. From
  • 149
  • 23 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Cytokine Adsorption in Lung Transplantation and Heart Transplantation
Cytokine adsorption can resolve different complications characteristic of transplantation medicine, such as cytokine storm activation and blood ABO and immune incompatibilities. Cytokine adsorption is also performed for the treatment of various life-threatening conditions, such as endotoxic septic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and cardiogenic shock, all potentially leading to adverse clinical outcomes during transplantation. After surgery, dysmetabolism and stress response limit successful graft survival and can lead to primary or secondary graft dysfunction. In this clinical context, and given that a major problem in transplant medicine is that the demand for organs far exceeds the supply, a technological innovation such as a hemoadsorption system could greatly contribute to increasing the number of usable organ donors.
  • 149
  • 22 Jan 2024
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