Topic Review
Anal Stenosis
Anal stenosis (AS) is defined as anatomical or functional narrowing of the anal canal, which can result from inflammatory bowel diseases, radiation therapy, congenital malformations, or excisional hemorrhoidectomy. The anatomical AS is related to the increased fibrous scar tissue forming, which disables stretching of the anal canal. The leading cause of the anatomical AS is excisional hemorrhoidectomy that is often the chosen treatment for grade III and IV hemorrhoidal disease.
  • 1685
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Antibiotic Cement and Spine Surgery
Antibiotic bone cement (ABC) is an effective tool for the prophylaxis and treatment of osteomyelitis due to the controlled, sustained release of local antibiotics. ABC has been proven to be effective in the orthopedic fields of arthroplasty and extremity trauma, but the adoption of ABC in spine surgery is limited. The characteristics of ABC make it an optimal solution for treating vertebral osteomyelitis (VO), a serious complication following spine surgery, typically caused by bacterial and sometimes fungal and parasitic pathogens.
  • 231
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy for Intra-Abdominal Infections
Adequately controlling the source of infection and prescribing appropriately antibiotic therapy are the cornerstones of the management of patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Correctly classifying patients with IAIs is crucial to assessing the severity of their clinical condition and deciding the strategy of the treatment, including a correct empiric antibiotic therapy. Best practices in prescribing antibiotics may impact patient outcomes and the cost of treatment, as well as the risk of “opportunistic” infections such as Clostridioides difficile infection and the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
  • 192
  • 26 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence for Surgeons
Computer vision (CV) is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that deals with the automatic analysis of videos and images. Recent advances in AI and CV methods coupled with the growing availability of surgical videos of minimally invasive procedures have led to the development of AI-based algorithms to improve surgical care.
  • 236
  • 27 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in Breast Surgery
Breast reconstruction is a pivotal part of the recuperation process following a mastectomy and aims to restore both the physical aesthetic and emotional well-being of breast cancer survivors. In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as a revolutionary technology across numerous medical disciplines. The role of AI in the domain of breast reconstruction is explored. 
  • 123
  • 17 Aug 2023
Topic Review
Atypical Skull-Base Osteomyelitis
Atypical skull-base osteomyelitis is a rare but fatal disease that usually involves infection of the ethmoid, sphenoid, occipital, or temporal bones that form the skull base. Unlike typical (so-called otogenic), atypical skull-base osteomyelitis has no otogenic cause. Instead, some authors call atypical skull-base osteomyelitis sinonasal, since the infection most often originates from the nose and paranasal sinuses. 
  • 165
  • 09 May 2023
Topic Review
Augmented Reality and Image-Guided Robotic Liver Surgery
Robotic surgery has gained much attention in liver resection for its potential to increase surgical dexterity in a minimally invasive scenario. In liver surgery, robotic systems help surgeons to localize tumors and improve surgical results with well-defined preoperative planning or increased intraoperative detection. Furthermore, they can balance the absence of tactile feedback and help recognize intrahepatic biliary or vascular structures during parenchymal transection. In addition, the robotic system presents the advantage of creating a hybrid interface in which pre- and intra-operative imaging tools could be exploited alone or together in order to guide surgical resection.
  • 359
  • 24 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Augmented Reality in Minimally Invasive Surgery Procedures
Augmented reality (AR) technology is gaining increasing interest in the development of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedures. The main application areas can be divided into three main groups: Navigation, education and training, and user-environment interfaces. Although AR-guided navigation systems do not yet offer a precision advantage, benefits include improved ergonomics and visualization, as well as reduced surgical time and blood loss. Benefits are also seen in improved education and training conditions and improved user environment interfaces, which may indirectly influence MIS procedures. Controlled studies with large case numbers and standardized outcome parameters and reporting are lacking to confirm the added value for clinical use.
  • 141
  • 04 May 2023
Topic Review
Augmented Reality in Surgery
Augmented reality (AR) is an innovative system that enhances the real world by superimposing virtual objects on reality. The application of AR in image-guided surgery (IGS) can be an increasingly important opportunity for the treatment of patients. In particular, AR allows one to see 3D images projected directly onto patients thanks to the use of special displays.
  • 579
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Autologous Breast Reconstruction versus Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction
The autologous method for breast reconstruction has been determined by researchers throughout the field as providing comparable benefits and positive long-term outcomes with more natural results compared to implant-based breast reconstruction which can often result in firmer, less natural breast mounds and increase the risks associated with foreign material in the body. The traditional method of using the abdomen, thigh, or gluteus region as a donor site has been a suitable, if not preferred, option for patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral non-implant-based reconstruction. By utilizing the rectus abdominus, latissimus dorsi, transverse or diagonal upper gracilis, gluteal, or any other appropriate muscle flap with transposable vasculature, surgeons are able to recreate a warm, soft, and natural breast mound in the place of removed breast tissue and skin that may be necessary for patients with locally involved breast cancer.
  • 121
  • 27 Jun 2023
  • Page
  • of
  • 18