Topic Review
Antibiotic Cement and Spine Surgery
Antibiotic bone cement (ABC) is an effective tool for the prophylaxis and treatment of osteomyelitis due to the controlled, sustained release of local antibiotics. ABC has been proven to be effective in the orthopedic fields of arthroplasty and extremity trauma, but the adoption of ABC in spine surgery is limited. The characteristics of ABC make it an optimal solution for treating vertebral osteomyelitis (VO), a serious complication following spine surgery, typically caused by bacterial and sometimes fungal and parasitic pathogens.
  • 102
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy for Intra-Abdominal Infections
Adequately controlling the source of infection and prescribing appropriately antibiotic therapy are the cornerstones of the management of patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Correctly classifying patients with IAIs is crucial to assessing the severity of their clinical condition and deciding the strategy of the treatment, including a correct empiric antibiotic therapy. Best practices in prescribing antibiotics may impact patient outcomes and the cost of treatment, as well as the risk of “opportunistic” infections such as Clostridioides difficile infection and the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance.
  • 92
  • 26 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence for Surgeons
Computer vision (CV) is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that deals with the automatic analysis of videos and images. Recent advances in AI and CV methods coupled with the growing availability of surgical videos of minimally invasive procedures have led to the development of AI-based algorithms to improve surgical care.
  • 123
  • 27 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Augmented Reality and Image-Guided Robotic Liver Surgery
Robotic surgery has gained much attention in liver resection for its potential to increase surgical dexterity in a minimally invasive scenario. In liver surgery, robotic systems help surgeons to localize tumors and improve surgical results with well-defined preoperative planning or increased intraoperative detection. Furthermore, they can balance the absence of tactile feedback and help recognize intrahepatic biliary or vascular structures during parenchymal transection. In addition, the robotic system presents the advantage of creating a hybrid interface in which pre- and intra-operative imaging tools could be exploited alone or together in order to guide surgical resection.
  • 201
  • 24 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Augmented Reality in Surgery
Augmented reality (AR) is an innovative system that enhances the real world by superimposing virtual objects on reality. The application of AR in image-guided surgery (IGS) can be an increasingly important opportunity for the treatment of patients. In particular, AR allows one to see 3D images projected directly onto patients thanks to the use of special displays.
  • 362
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Azoospermia (a-, without + –zoo– » Greek zôion, animal + –spermia– » Greek sperma, sperm/seed) is defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
  • 539
  • 04 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Melanoma
Malignant melanoma is one of the most common cancers in the world. In the disease’s early stages, treatment involves surgery, in advanced stages however, treatment options were once scarce. There has been a paradigm shift in advanced melanoma treatment with the introduction of immunotherapy and targeted therapies. Understanding the molecular pathways and their pathologic counterparts helped identifying specific biomarkers that lead to the development of specific targeted therapies.
  • 97
  • 25 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Biomaterials-Based Regenerative Therapies for Intervertebral Disc
Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of low back pain and most spinal disorders. Recent advances in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering suggest the potential of biomaterial-based IVD regeneration therapies. These treatments may be indicated for patients with IVDs in the intermediate degenerative stage, a point where the number of viable cells decreases, and the structural integrity of the disc begins to collapse.
  • 183
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Breast Implant Illness
Breast implant illness refers to a combination of different symptoms related to breast implant surgery, including fatigue, brain fog, and arthralgias. This malaise occurs after cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgeries, although it has not been proven to be a disease. Complications associated with breast implants include breast pain, capsular contracture, infections, as well as other manifestations specific to breast reconstruction. 
  • 817
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
Cardiothoracic Surgical Critical Care Medicine
Cardiothoracic surgical critical care medicine (CT-CCM) is a medical discipline centered on the perioperative care of diverse groups of patients. With an aging demographic and an increase in burden of chronic diseases the utilization of cardiothoracic surgical critical care units is likely to escalate. Given these projections, it is important to assess the state of cardiothoracic surgical intensive care, to develop goals and objectives for the future, and to identify knowledge gaps in need of scientific inquiry.
  • 66
  • 09 Jan 2023
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