Topic Review
Breast Implant Illness
Breast implant illness refers to a combination of different symptoms related to breast implant surgery, including fatigue, brain fog, and arthralgias. This malaise occurs after cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgeries, although it has not been proven to be a disease. Complications associated with breast implants include breast pain, capsular contracture, infections, as well as other manifestations specific to breast reconstruction. 
  • 1060
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
Cardiothoracic Surgical Critical Care Medicine
Cardiothoracic surgical critical care medicine (CT-CCM) is a medical discipline centered on the perioperative care of diverse groups of patients. With an aging demographic and an increase in burden of chronic diseases the utilization of cardiothoracic surgical critical care units is likely to escalate. Given these projections, it is important to assess the state of cardiothoracic surgical intensive care, to develop goals and objectives for the future, and to identify knowledge gaps in need of scientific inquiry.
  • 118
  • 09 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Cataract in Patients with AMD
Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two of the most common eye diseases of aging. This entry addresses the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative considerations in managing cataract in patients with age-related macular degeneration.
  • 192
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Chitosan-Based Materials and Devices
Chitosan is one of the most studied polysaccharides in recent decades for its biomedical application. This polymer is derived from chitin, the main component in the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans, a homopolymer consisting of β-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan depends on the conditions applied during the deacetylation process—such as temperature or sodium hydroxide concentration—and determines various properties of the polymer, such as pKa, solubility, and viscosity. Chitosan has been used in a broad assortment of medical materials and devices. Each system benefits from the properties that chitosan can provide for surgical applications. The shape, porosity, consistency, and size of the fabricated systems can be precisely tuned for the intended application.
  • 194
  • 11 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Classification and Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis
The pancreas is a glandular organ that is responsible for the proper functioning of the digestive and endocrine systems, and therefore, it affects the condition of the entire body. Consequently, it is important to effectively diagnose and treat diseases of this organ. According to clinicians, pancreatitis—a common disease affecting the pancreas—is one of the most complicated and demanding diseases of the abdomen. The classification of pancreatitis is based on clinical, morphologic, and histologic criteria. Medical doctors distinguish, inter alia, acute pancreatitis (AP), the most common causes of which are gallstone migration and alcohol abuse.
  • 386
  • 30 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Classifying Oligometastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents a subset of patients with limited metastatic spread and the potential for achieving long-term survival, or even cure, with LCT to all sites of disease. Patient selection for aggressive local treatment of oligometastatic NSCLC would be facilitated by a common definition of what constitutes oligometastasis. The definition of oligometastasis by LCT treatment feasibility is vague and elusive, particularly in the context of ever-improving local treatment modalities.
  • 259
  • 10 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Complete Mesogastric Excisions Involving Anatomical and Embryological Factors
Surgeries for gastrointestinal tract malignancies are based on the paradigm that we should remove the tumour together with its lymphatic drainage in one block. This concept was initially proposed in rectal surgery and called a total mesorectal excision.
  • 511
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Complicated Appendicitis during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Pre-Pandemic
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted volume, management strategies and patient outcomes of acute appendicitis. There is a significantly higher incidence of complicated appendicitis in children during the COVID-19 pandemic than in the pre-COVID-19 period. Additionally, a significantly higher proportion of children was managed via the NOM during the pandemic in comparison to the pre-pandemic period. 
  • 292
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Corpus Callosotomy for Controlling Epileptic Spasms
Epileptic spasms (ESs) are a type of epileptic seizure characterized as brief muscle contractions with ictal polyphasic slow waves on an electroencephalogram and a main feature of West syndrome. Resection surgeries, including frontal/posterior disconnections and hemispherotomy, have been established for the treatment of medically intractable ES in patients with unilaterally localized epileptogenic regions. Corpus callosotomy (CC) has been mainly used to treat drop attacks, which are classified as generalized tonic or atonic seizures. However, CC has also been adopted for ES treatment. 
  • 266
  • 18 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Curcumin Embedded Electrospun Nanofibers for Wound Healing
Chronic wounds impose a significant burden on individuals and healthcare systems all over the world. Through clinical and preclinical investigations, inflammation and oxidative damage have been established as the primary causes of chronic wounds. These skin sores are easily exposed to microorganisms, which in turn cause inflammation and hinder the healing process. Additionally, microorganisms may cause an infection that prevents collagen production and reepithelialization. Curcumin’s antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious characteristics, among others, have been identified as useful for diabetic wound healing management. However, curcumin has a few disadvantages, such as limited bioavailability, pH-dependent instability, water insolubility, slow cell absorption, and fast intracellular metabolism. These constraints necessitates the development of a suitable transporter to improve curcumin’s stability, bioavailability, therapeutic efficacy, and solubility. 
  • 167
  • 24 Nov 2022
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