Topic Review
Volumetric Muscle Loss
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is the massive wasting of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic events or surgical ablation. This pathological condition exceeds the physiological healing process carried out by the muscle itself, which owns remarkable capacity to restore damages but only when limited in dimensions. Upon VML occurring, the affected area is severely compromised, heavily influencing the affected person’s quality of life. Overall, this condition is often associated with chronic disability, which makes the return to duty of highly specialized professional figures (e.g., military personnel or athletes) almost impossible. The actual treatment for VML is based on surgical conservative treatment followed by physical exercise; nevertheless, the results, in terms of either lost mass and/or functionality recovery, are still poor. On the other hand, the efforts of the scientific community are focusing on reconstructive therapy aiming at muscular tissue void volume replenishment by exploiting biomimetic matrix or artificial tissue implantation. Reconstructing strategies represent a valid option to build new muscular tissue not only to recover damaged muscles, but also to better socket prosthesis in terms of anchorage surfaces and reinnervation substrates for reconstructed mass. 
  • 263
  • 26 May 2021
Topic Review
Lemongrass Essential Oil
Cymbopogon spp. are fast-growing C4 perennial sedges from the grass family Poaceae and are primarily cultivated for their essential oils. The genus lemongrass comprises about 180 species, such as Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cymbopogon martinii, Cymbopogon nardus, and Cymbopogon refractus. Lemongrass (Cymbopogonspp.) oil is a cocktail of various terpenes and terpenoids, out of which the major components belong to cyclic and acyclic monoterpenes. The monoterpenes are derived from geranyl diphosphate (GPP).
  • 188
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Azoospermia
Azoospermia (a-, without + –zoo– » Greek zôion, animal + –spermia– » Greek sperma, sperm/seed) is defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
  • 185
  • 04 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Breast Implant Illness
Breast implant illness refers to a combination of different symptoms related to breast implant surgery, including fatigue, brain fog, and arthralgias. This malaise occurs after cosmetic and reconstructive breast surgeries, although it has not been proven to be a disease. Complications associated with breast implants include breast pain, capsular contracture, infections, as well as other manifestations specific to breast reconstruction. 
  • 183
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. It is principally associated with liver cirrhosis and chronic liver disease. The major risk factors for the development of HCC include viral infections (HBV, HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD,) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The optimal treatment choice is dictated by multiple variables such as tumor burden, liver function, and patient’s health status. Surgical resection, transplantation, ablation, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy are potentially useful treatment strategies. TACE is considered the first-line treatment for patients with intermediate stage HCC. 
  • 181
  • 24 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Liver Surgery
Major high-risk surgery (HRS) exposes patients to potential perioperative adverse events. Hepatic resection of colorectal metastases can surely be included into the HRS class of operations. Limiting such risks is the main target of the perioperative medicine.
  • 171
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Complete Mesogastric Excisions Involving Anatomical and Embryological Factors
Surgeries for gastrointestinal tract malignancies are based on the paradigm that we should remove the tumour together with its lymphatic drainage in one block. This concept was initially proposed in rectal surgery and called a total mesorectal excision.
  • 164
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Regenerative Treatment for Osteoarthritis Disease
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating disorder causing pain and gradual degeneration of weight-bearing joints with detrimental effects on cartilage volume as well as cartilage damage, generating inflammation in the joint structure. The etiology of OA is multifactorial. Currently, therapies are mainly addressing the physical and occupational aspects of osteoarthritis using pharmacologic pain treatment and/or surgery to manage the symptomatology of the disease with no specific regard to disease progression or prevention.
  • 158
  • 14 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Foreign Bodies in the Liver in Children
Retention of foreign bodies (FB) in the liver parenchyma is a rare event in children but it can bring a heavy burden in terms of immediate and long-term complications. Multiple materials can migrate inside the liver. Clinical manifestations may vary, depending on the nature of the foreign body, its route of penetration and timing after the initial event. Moreover, the location of the FB inside the liver parenchyma may pose specific issues related to the possible complications of a challenging surgical extraction. Different clinical settings and the need for highly specialized surgical skills may influence the overall management of these children. 
  • 142
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Etiopathogenetic Models on BIA-ALCL
BIA-ALCL is a rare T-cell lymphoma, CD30 positive, ALK-negative usually discovered after the diagnosis of spontaneous periprosthetic seroma or intracapsular mass around the breast implant.
  • 141
  • 22 Sep 2021
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