Log in/Sign up
Arts & Humanities
Biology & Life Sciences
Business & Economics
Chemistry & Materials Science
Computer Science & Mathematics
Environmental & Earth Sciences
Medicine & Pharmacology
Public Health & Healthcare
2-Hydroxybutyric Acid for Insulin Resistance
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2D), commonly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is responsible for up to 95% of diabetic cases worldwide. It is defined as a chronic condition characterized by the loss and/or dysfunction of β-cells and insulin resistance (IR) in effector tissues, which is immediately recognized by an increase in glucose levels in the bloodstream, i.e., hyperglycemia.
15 Dec 2021
3D Printing in Complex Medical Procedures
Medicine is a rapidly-evolving discipline, with progress picking up pace with each passing decade. This constant evolution results in the introduction of new tools and methods, which in turn occasionally leads to paradigm shifts across the affected medical fields. The following review attempts to showcase how 3D printing has begun to reshape and improve processes across various medical specialties and where it has the potential to make a significant impact.
18 Mar 2022
3D-Bioprinting for Chronic Wound
Skin substitutes can provide a temporary or permanent treatment option for chronic wounds. The selection of skin substitutes depends on several factors, including the type of wound and its severity. Full-thickness skin grafts (SGs) require a well-vascularised bed and sometimes will lead to contraction and scarring formation. Besides, donor sites for full-thickness skin grafts are very limited if the wound area is big, and it has been proven to have the lowest survival rate compared to thick- and thin-split thickness. Tissue engineering technology has introduced new advanced strategies since the last decades to fabricate the composite scaffold via the 3D-bioprinting approach as a tissue replacement strategy. Considering the current global donor shortage for autologous split-thickness skin graft (ASSG), skin 3D-bioprinting has emerged as a potential alternative to replace the ASSG treatment. The three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting technique yields scaffold fabrication with the combination of biomaterials and cells to form bioinks.
08 Jan 2022
A New Role of Acute Phase Proteins
The prevailing general view of acute-phase proteins (APPs) is that they are produced by the liver in response to the stress of the body as part of a systemic acute-phase response. A coordinated, local production of these proteins upon cell stress by the stressed cells has been demonstrated. The local, stress-induced APP production has been demonstrated in different tissues (kidney, breast cancer) and with different stressors (hypoxia, fibrosis and electromagnetic heat). Thus, this local acute-phase response (APR) seems to be a universal mechanism. APP production is an ancient defense mechanism observed in nematodes and fruit flies as well. Local APP production at the tissue level is also supported by sporadic literature data for single proteins.
01 Apr 2022
A Synergistic Anthropological Approach to the COVID-19 Pandemic
This review describes the relationship between the coronavirus-related pandemic and health inequities. The latter are linked to pre-existing social and economic discriminations in terms of access to healthcare for people affected by chronic diseases. We believe that we are living in a “syndemic pandemic”. The term “syndemic” was originally developed by the medical anthropologist Merrill Singer in the 1990s in order to recognize the correlation between HIV/AIDS, illicit drug use, and violence in the United States. This complex interplay exacerbated the burden of the disease and the prognosis of the patient. Similarly, in COVID-19 infection, socio-economic, ethnic, and racial inequities result in higher morbidity and mortality in certain sections of society. Unfortunately, such differences are becoming too common during the COVID-19 pandemic, in terms of the incidence and prevalence of the disease, as well as inequal access to new medical advances and life-saving therapeutics for those with COVID-19, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibody treatment. Lockdown measures, imposed internationally as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, are causing economic inequities, which complicate the issue even further. An appropriate syndemic anthropological approach is necessary to ensure that this pandemic does not increase health inequities in access to appropriate treatments.
23 Sep 2022
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms
This entry outlines recent preclinical and clinical advances in molecular imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) with a focus on molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In addition, developments in pharmacologic treatment of AAA targeting the ECM are reviewed and results from animal studies are contrasted with clinical trials. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an often fatal disease without non-invasive pharmacologic treatment options. The ECM, with collagen type I and elastin as major components, is the key structural component of the aortic wall and is recognized as a target tissue for both initiation and the progression of AAA. Molecular imaging allows in vivo measurement and characterization of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level and sets forth to visualize molecular abnormalities at an early stage of disease, facilitating novel diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. By providing surrogate criteria for the in vivo evaluation of the effects of pharmacological therapies, molecular imaging techniques targeting the ECM may facilitate the development of pharmacological drugs. In addition, molecular targets can also be used within theranostic approaches that have the potential for timely diagnosis and simultaneous medical therapy. Recent successes in preclinical studies suggest future opportunities for clinical translation. However, further clinical studies are needed to validate the most promising molecular targets for human application.
22 Sep 2021
Actionable Mutations Detected via ddPCR
Liquid biopsies are considered a good alternative and complementary tool for cancer management. The study of specific biomarkers by high throughput techniques could guide clinicians in the monitoring of disease evolution during the administration of targeted therapies. Although ddPCR has demonstrated its high sensitivity and specificity rates for detecting rare actionable mutations, further studies are required to implement it in all clinical laboratories for precision medicine.
02 Sep 2021
Adipose Cells and Myocytes in Sarcopenic Obesity
As a result of aging, body composition changes, with a decline in muscle mass and an increase in adipose tissue (AT), which reallocates from subcutaneous to visceral depots and stores ectopically in the liver, heart and muscles. Furthermore, with aging, muscle and AT, both of which have recognized endocrine activity, become dysfunctional and contribute, in the case of positive energy balance, to the development of sarcopenic obesity (SO). SO is defined as the co-existence of excess adiposity and low muscle mass and function, and its prevalence increases with age. SO is strongly associated with greater morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of SO is complex and multifactorial.
16 Nov 2022
Advanced Glycation End Products and Diabetes Mellitus
Persistent hyperglycemic state in type 2 diabetes mellitus leads to the initiation and progression of non-enzymatic glycation reaction with proteins and lipids and nucleic acids. Glycation reaction leads to the generation of a heterogeneous group of chemical moieties known as advanced glycated end products (AGEs), which play a central role in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The engagement of AGEs with its chief cellular receptor, RAGE, activates a myriad of signaling pathways such as MAPK/ERK, TGF-β, JNK, and NF-κB, leading to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. The downstream consequences of the AGEs/RAGE axis involve compromised insulin signaling, perturbation of metabolic homeostasis, RAGE-induced pancreatic beta cell toxicity, and epigenetic modifications. The AGEs/RAGE signaling instigated modulation of gene transcription is profoundly associated with the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus and pathogenesis of diabetic complications.
01 Jun 2022
Advances of MXenes
MXenes are synthesized from ‘MAX’ phases by the selective etching of ‘A’ layers. The MAX phases are conductive 2D layers of transition metal carbides/nitrides interconnected by the ‘A’ element with strong ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds.
04 Jul 2022
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
Log in/Sign up
Terms and Conditions
Browse our user manual, common Q&A, author guidelines, etc.
Rate your experience
Let us know your experience and what we could improve.
Report an error
Is something wrong? Please let us know!
Other feedback you would like to report.
Did you find what you were looking for?
Do you agree to share your valuable feedback publicly on
Yes, I agree. Encyclopedia can post it.
No, I do not agree. I would not like to post my testimonial.
Upload a screenshot
(Max file size 2MB)